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Flashcards in Bacteria species Deck (22):


-one of the most abundant organisms on earth
~half of photosynthesis in the worlds oceans


Rhizobium leguminosarum

-non pathogenic alphaproteobacteria
-forms root nodules on legume plants
-symbiotic relationship
-bacterium fixes nitrogen into a bioavailable form
-plant provides nutrients and a home for the bacteria


rickettsia rickettsii

-pathogenic alphaproetobacteria
-obligate intracellular pathogen
-carried by insects and transmitted by a insect bites
-causes rocky mountain spotted fever
-phylogenetically rickettsia is the closest relative to the eukaryotic mitochondrion


Neisseria mucosa

-non pathogenic betaproetobacteria
-non pathogenic commensal of the human body-lives on mucous membranes


neisseria gonorrhoeae

-pathogenic betaproteobacteria
-causes the STI gonorrhea


Escherichia coli

-gram negative, rod shaped, faculatative aerobe, motile by means of peritrichous flagella
-ferments lactose to a mixture of acids and alcohols
-resident of the large intestine of warm-blooded animals
-serves as an important indicator of fecal contamination


Pseudomonas aeruginosa

-gram negative, rod shaped, motile by means of polar flagella, but does not ferment sugars
-naturally resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants
-opportunistic pathogen-causes infections in immunocompromised patients
-ex. respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients


myxococcus xanthus

-delta and epsilonproteobacteria
-gliding motility
-predatory -releases exoenzymes to lyse other bacteria for nutrients
-when starved-cells migrate together to form complex multicellular fruiting bodies
-individual cells differentiate into myxospores for dispersal


lactobacillus delbrueckii

-lactic acid bacteria firmicutes
-yogurt production


streptococcus pyogenes

lactic acid bacteria firmicutes
-cause of strep throat, scarlet fever and the flesh eating disease!


staphylococcus aureus

-non lactic acid bacteria firmicutes
-facultative aerobe that forms characteristic grape like clusters
-lives on skin
-halotolerant can be isolated using media with high NaCl, like mannitol salt agar
-frequent cause of nosocomial infections


Bacillus subtilis

-endospore forming firmicutes
-important lab bacterium used as a model for:
-gram positive cell structure and genetics
-cell division and differentiation (into spores)


Clostridium botulinum

-endospore forming firmicutes
-strict anaerobe with a fermentative metabolism
-lives in tiny anoxic pockets in the soil
-secretes a variety of exoenzymes to degrade plant material
-can also grow in anaerobic canned foods
-produces a deadly neurotoxin, which when consumed causes botulism (food poisoning)
-proper canning procedures must either:
*reach temp above 120 to destroy endospores
*or include enough acid or sugar to prevent germination


mycoplasma genitalium

-tenericutes: the mycoplasmas
-common cause of urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease
-first free living bacterium to have its genome sequenced
-one of the smallest genomes known at 500 Kbp


corynebacterium diphtheriae

-produces an exotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis
-causes tissue death in the respiratory tract-diphtheria
-can lead to death by suffocation


mycobacterium tuberculosis

actinobacteria: mycobacterium
-slow growing (~24hr/gen)
-colonies can take weeks to form on agar medium
-cause of tuberculosis-slow, fatal respiratory diesease


streptomyces griseus

-filamentous actinobacteria
-produces streptomycin, a broad spectrum protein synthesis inhibitor active against gram negative bacteria


bacteroides thetaitaomicron

-strict anaerobe
-numerically dominant microbe in the human large intestine
-produces enzymes to degrade polysaccharides, greatly increasing the variety of plant polymers that can be digested in the human gut


Chlamydia trachomatis

-trachoma (infection of the eye)
-causes scarring and blindness


gemmata obscuriglobus

-nuceoid is surrounded by a true unit membrane


thermus aquaticus

-deinococcus thermus
-a thermophilic chemoorganohetertroph
-sources of temperature stable enzymes-taq DNA polymerase
-allows DNA synthesis reactions in the lab to be carried out quickly at high temperatures
-an essential tool for PCR (polymerase chain reaction)


deinococcus radiodurans

-deinococcus thermus
-extremely resistant to radiation
-highly effective DNA repair mechanisms
-forms pairs of tetrads. in response to massive DNA damage, can fuse nucleoids from two cells to facilitate repair
-has a gram negative cell wall type, but stains gram positive because of thick peptidoglycan