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Flashcards in bacterial infections Deck (48)
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1
Q

superficial infection of the skin caused by strep pyogens and/or staph aureus in unsanitary conditions

A

impetigo

2
Q

during what time is impetigo most common?

A

summer or early fall in hot moist climates

3
Q

in what age is impetigo most common

A

school aged children

4
Q

superficial vesicles that quickly rupture and become covered in a thick, amber crust, pruitus common

A

impetigo

5
Q

facial lesions around the nose and the mouth. many cases arise in areas of damaged skin; prexisting dermatitis, cuts, scratches, insects

A

impetigo

6
Q

what does the definitive dx of impetigo require?

A

isolation of causative organisms in culture of skin

7
Q

what is the tx of impetigo?

A

topical or systemic antibiotic

8
Q

convoluted crypts of the tonsils that are commonly filled with desquamated cells, foreign debris, and bacteria (tonsillar concretions)

A

tonsillolithiasis

9
Q

what is it called when tonsillolithiasis aggregate and undergo calcification?

A

tonsilloths

10
Q

what do tonsillolithiasis appear as radiogreaphically

A

may present as radiopacities overlying the midportion of ascending ramus

11
Q

what is the tx for tonsillolithiasis?

A

none unless associated with clinical symptoms

12
Q

chronic infection found worldwide caused by the spirochete treponema pallidum

A

syphillis

13
Q

what three things causes syphillis

A
  • intimate sexual contact
  • transplacental transmission
  • contaminated blood exposure
14
Q

during which three stages of syphilis are the most highly contagious?

A

first two

15
Q

which stage of syphilis causes painless ulceration “chancre”

A

primary syphilis

16
Q

when does primary syphilis occur?

A

3-90 days after exposure

17
Q

what area is most affected by primary syphilis?

A

genital (2% oral)

18
Q

when does secondary syphilis occur?

A

4-10 weeks after initial infection

19
Q

erythematous maculopapular cutaneous eruption with generalized lymphadenopathy

A

secondary syphilis

20
Q

what is the tx of secondary syphilis?

A

resolves spontaneously in 8-12 weeks, but may recur

*untreated pts then enter a latent period

21
Q

when does tertiary syphilis occur?

A

after a latency period of 1-30 years

22
Q

what tissues doe tertiary syphilis affect?

A

ANY TISSUE, CNS, vascular

23
Q

what are some general findings of congenital syphilis?

A
  • saddle nose deformity
  • saber shins
  • hutchinson’s triad (malformed incisors, mulberry molars, ocular interstitial keratitis
  • eighth nerve deafness
24
Q

which stages of syphilis show intense plasmactic infiltrate

A

primary and secondary

25
Q

what is tertiary (gumma) syphilis characterized by?

A

granulomatous inflammation

26
Q

how can the spirochetes of syphilis identified?

A

warthin-Starry stain

27
Q

what are the screening tests of syphilis?

A
  • VDRL

- RPR

28
Q

what is the specific antibody test of syphilis

A

FTA

29
Q

what test can be done for non-oral lesions of syphilis?

A

dark-field microscopy

30
Q

what is the best way to tx syphilis

A
  • penicillin is drug of choice
  • if allergic, use tetracycline or erythromycin

*good prognosis if identified early and tx properly

31
Q

endemic in many areas of the world and is estimated that 9 million ppl around the world develop the disease each year (2 million die)

A

tuberculosis

32
Q

how is TB spread?

A

droplet transmission

33
Q

where is TB most often found?

A

resurgence in inner cities of the US in the 1980s dur to HIV patients and immigrants from endemic regions

34
Q

how many TB pts progress to active disease within 2 years after exposure?

A

5 percent

35
Q

what are the clinical features of TB?

A
  • low grade fever, night sweats, fatigue
  • weight loss (consumption)
  • chronic bloody cough
36
Q

are oral lesions from syphilis common?

A

no, but if they are they will most likely be on the the gingiva and the tongue

37
Q

solitary chronic painless ulcer or granular lesions

A

TB oral lesions

38
Q

how do you dx TB?

A

positive skin test (PPD)
*only indicates exposure

  • chest radiograph
  • culture
  • ID of organisms of biopsy material
  • molecular testing (PCR)
39
Q

TB has what type of cells?

A

multinucleated giant cells

40
Q

how do you treat TB?

A

usually combo of antibiotics

  • isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrainamide daily for 2 months)
  • then ING and rifampin for 4 months
  • ehtambutol or streptomycin also used

*anti-TB therapy works relatively rapidly resulting in a non-infectious state in two weeks

41
Q

what is the prognosis for TB pts in an immunocompromised pt

A

generally good

42
Q

what lowers the prognosis for TB?

A

when pts fail to take prescribed meds

-emergence of resistant strains

43
Q

often associated with local trauma that is caused by any of several Actinomyces species that normally inhabit the mouth

A

actinomycosis

44
Q

what parts of the body are affected my actinomysis?

A
  • abdominal (25 percent)
  • pulmonary (15 percent)
  • cervicofacial (55 percent)
45
Q

may follow dental extractions or untreated dental disease that is associted eith diffuse swelling and erythema and draining sinus tracts. Is associated with SULFUR GRANULES

A

cervicofacial actinomycosis

46
Q

filamentous bacteria that form colonies surrounded by neutrophils. adjacent tissues may show granulomatous inflammation or granulation tissue

A

actino

47
Q

what is the tx for actino

A
  • removal of offending tooth
  • high-dose antibiotics (usually penicillin)
  • good prognosis with appropriate tx
48
Q

what type of actinomycosis ussually responds to less aggressive treatment?

A

periapical actinomycosis