commissural lip pits occur in what % of adults?
how big are commissural lip pits?
are pits around the lip that are ASYMPTOMATIC and INNOCULOUS
commissural lip pits
is tx needed for commissural lip pits?
rare anomaly of a redundant fold of tissue on the mucosal side of the lip
how does someone aquire a double lip?
can be congenital or aquired through trauma
when do you see a double lip
usually only becomes noticable when the pt smiles
do you need to tx a double lip?
only for esthetic purposes
ectopic sebaceous glands that occur on the oral mucosa (sweat glands) that are multiple small yellow or whitish-yellow papules
are fordyce granules common?
present in 80% of the population
where are the two most common locations for fordyce granules
- buccal mucosa
- upper lip vermillion
are fordyce granules seen more in adults or children
is treatment necessary for fordyce granules?
diffuse grayish or milky which appearance to oral mucosa, with surface folds or wrinkles
*is a fluid accumulation within the epithelial cells of the spinous layer
where is the most common location for leukoedema?
buccal mucosa and often they are bilateral
is leukoedema common?
yes especially with people with more melanin on their skin as well as smokers
how do you confirm the dx of leukoedema?
the whitish appearance disappears when the mucosa is stretched/distended
uncommon condition of a very small tongue
complete absense of a tongue
*EVEN MORE RARE than microglossia
uncommon enlargement of the tongue that is either congenital or aquired
what most frequently causes macroglossia?
also known as tongue tied, it is an abbreviated or absent lingual frenum
*speech problems are probably exaggerated (human body often self corrects)
how common is ankyloglossia?
2-4% of neonates
rare developmental problem due to failure of migration of thyroid anlage (primative thyroid gland)
what is associated with a lingual thyroid
mass develops in foramen cecum
is a lingual thyroid more associated with M or F
what is used to make the dx for lingual thyroid?
radioactive iodine scan
for which gender should we consider excision of a lingual thyroid?
*these are more common in females but if they occur in males there is a greater chance for malignancy
are fissured tongues seen more in kids or adults?
almost exclusively in adults
*no tx necessary
common condition that is an elongation of the filiform papillae of the dorsal tongue (accumulation of keratin)
coated tongue (hairy tongue)
what is a coated tongue usually associated with ?
for a coated tongue, what can cause the papillae to become discolored?
- pigment producing bacteria
- staining from tobacco
due you need to tx a hairy tongue?
not unless the pt wants it, it is asymptomatic and harmless
abnormally dilated and tortuous veins often seen in older adults
what causes varix
secondary to age-related degeneration or laxity in elastic support of vessel walls
*may become secondarily thrombosed
where are the common sites of varix?
- ventral and lateral tongue
- buccal mucosa
- labial mucosa
- lip vermillion
how do you determine if a vein is varixed?
perform a diascopy by applying pressure and observing color changes (vascular lesion will blanch)
common vascular anomally in which a main arterial branch extends superficially without reduction in its diameter (seagull in flight)
in what age groups do caliber-persistant arteries normally arise?
where are the most common sites for caliber-persistent arteries?
exclusively on lip mucosa
*upper more often than lower
is tx needed for a caliber persistant artery?
benign bony protuberances that are symptomatic unless secondarily traumatized
what are the three common types of exostoses?
- buccal exostoses
- torus palatinus
- torus madibularis
is tx needed for exostoses?
no, unless it is exposed to trauma repeatedley or if needed for fabrication of a removable prosthesis
asymptomatic, well-demarcated radioleucency below the mandibular canal in the POSTERIOR mandible
what helps to confirm the dx of a stafe defect
how does the stafne defect affect teeth?
should not affect them at all! does not involve teeth, only bone
rare soft tissue cyst involving the upper lip, lateral to midline, along the nasolabial groove
what is associated with a nasolabial cyst?
the ala of the nose may be elevated
nasolabial cysts involve more males or females?
3:1 female predominance (10% bilateral)
is there any bone involvement on a nasoalbial cyst?
nope, only soft tissue
what is the lining of a labial cyst?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial lining
most common non-odontogenic developmental cysts of the jaws
incisive canal cyst (nasopalatine cyst)
what does an incisive canal cyst develop from
epithelial remnants of the nasopalatine duct
where does an incisive canal cyst come from?
at the apices of (usually vital) max central incisors
how do you cure an incisive canal cyst?
when the incisive canal cyst only involves soft tissue
cyst of the incisive papilla
common cyst characterized by production of orthokeratin by a cystic lining that resembles the epidermis. usually affects the skin (face or back)
epidermoid cyst / milia
how do you treat an epidermoid cyst
very small epidermoid cysts that often occur in clusters/multiple periorbital location
how do you tx milia?
dont need to
they resolve spontaneously by self-marsupialation (popping pimples)
uncommon cyst that is lined by epidermis-like epithelium and a cyst wall that contains adnexal elements (hair follicles, sebacceous glands)
is a benign cystic form of teratoma (normal derivatives of all four germ layers)
where is the most common location for dermoid cysts
floor of the mouth usually midlines
what happens if a dermoid cyst is above the geniohyoid ?
hard to swallow
what happens if a dermoid cyst is below the geniohyoid
looks like a double chin
what is the tx of a dermoid cyst?
rare cyst that is found in the midline of the neck that arises from the remnants of the thyroglossal tract
thyroglossal duct cyst
* looks like an adam’s apple
what age group most often has thyroglassal duct cysts
50% occur before the age of 20
how large are thyroglossal duct cysts?
thyroglossal duct cysts have a HIGH recurrence unless treated by what?
sistrunk procedure (surgical excision with portion of the hyoid bone)
*1% malignant transformation
cervical variant of lymphoepithelial cyst that presumablby arises from remnants of the branchial clefts that results in fluctuant swelling of the lateral neck
branchial cleft cyst
where are most branchial cleft cysts?
anterior to the SCM
1/3 of branchial cleft cyst pts develop what?
how do you tx branchial cleft cyst?
surgical removal (minimal recurrence)
cyst that arises form epithelial rests trapped in oral lymphoid tissue involving waldeyer’s ring or accessory lymphoid aggregates
-soft to firm, white-yellow nodule usually less than 1cm and asymptomatic
oral lymphoepithelial cyst
where are oral lymphoepithelial cysts located?
floor of the mouth (50%), ventrolateral tongue, tonsillar pillar
how do you treat oral lymphoepithelial cysts?