Flashcards in Bacterial Zoonoses I Deck (34):
What type of bacterium is Anthracis?
Gram positive aerobic spore forming bacteria. Noted to grow in long chain box car like formations.
What is special about B. Anthracis outer membrane?
It is composed of Poly D and made of protein peptides.
What are the two toxins that B. Anthracis is known for?
Lethal factor and Edema factor
How does B. anthracis lethal factor work?
Disrupts normal cellular signalling leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
How does B anthracis edema factor work?
Increases cAMP causing edema and resisting phagocytosis.
What is wool sorters disease?
Inhilation of B. anthracis often through the wool of sheep.
A widened mediastinum and B. anthracis are signs of what sort of infection?
A pulmonary B. anthracis infection, 100% mortality without treatment in 3 days and 45-75% even with treatment.
What are the treatments for B. anthracis?
Fluoroquinones and Doxycycline for inhilation or GI
Topical Amoxicillin for cutaneous lesions.
What sort of bacteria is Brucella?
Gram negative coccobacilli that survives within cells.
What animal resevoirs of Brucella effect humans?
Cows, Pigs, and Goats.
What is the cardinal fever type seen with brucella infection?
A fever that rises at night and returns back to normal in the morning "Undulating"
What is teh treatment for Brucella?
Doxycycline and Rifampin for 6 weeks or longer.
How is Brucella spread?
Via aerosol or ingestion. Be thinking of those who work closely with farm animals!
What sort of bacteria is pateurella multocida?
A gram negative facultative anaerobe coccobacilli that is encapsulated (think LPS)
How is pasteurella M. usually spread?
Through a bite from a cat or dog most typically (or scratch)
What are the symptoms of P. multocida?
Cellulitis and lymphadenopathy within 12-24 hours following a cat or dog bite or scratch.
If left untreated can turn into osteomylitis and spread to the joints as well.
What is the treatment for P. multocida?
What sort of microbe is L. interrogans?
A gram negative motile spiral shaped bacteria with terminal hooks.
How is one infected with L. interrogans?
The bacterium is able to invade the abraded skin and mucous membranes typically from swimming in water contaminated in dog urine.
How does L. interrogans present systematically?
Erythimitous eyes lacking and exudate, Jaundce of the skin, may progress to respiratory, hepatic, or circulatory failure.
How is L. interrogans treated?
Treatment includes penicillin and ampicillin as well as avoidance of animal urine.
What sort of microbe is Francisella tularensis?
A small gram negative coccobacilli that is intracellular of monocytes and macrophages.
How does Francisella cause damage to the body?
Its LPS and polysaccharide capsule allow it to get inside monocytes and infect lymphnodes leading to lymph node swellin.
What is the resevoir for Francisella?
Most common laboratory aquired infection
How is francisella spread to humans?
Typically through ticks but can be airborn or obtained by handeling rabbits.
What are the three major forms of tularemia (Caused by francisella)
How does ulceroglandular present following francisella infection?
There will be a red painful ulcer at the site of entery, leading to swollen lymphnodes febrility, headache photophobia.
What is the treatment of Francisella? (tularemia)
Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside.
What sort of bacteria are Yersinia pestis?
Gram negative safety pin shaped non motile stained by geimsa stain to show bipolar staining.
What are the virulence factors for Yersinia pestis?
Protein capsule, LPS, and three plasmids that allow for the formation of biofilms, resistance to macrophage resistance, and resistance to complement mediated lysis.
Human to human transfer of Yersinia pestis is known as what?
Painful lymphadnopathy following Yersinia pestis infection is known as what?
Buboes associated with bubonic infection can also result in gangrenous extremities.
What is secondary pneumonic plague?
Individuals that are infected with the bubonic plague that then also recieve infection with pneumonic plague. This develops much slower than primary peumonic plague.