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Flashcards in Balance Deck (58)
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1

somatosensory receptors location

in joints, muscles, ligaments and skin

2

What information do somatosensory receptors provide?

length, tension, pressure, pain and joint position

3

How do you challenge the somatosensory system?

examine vibration and pressure
observe a pt when changing the surface they are standing on (slopes, uneven surfaces, standing on foam)

4

What are the purpose of visual receptors?

allow for perceptual acuity regarding verticality, motion of objects and self, environmental orientation, postural sway and movements of the head/neck

5

Who rely heavily on the visual system for maintenance of balance?

children

6

how do you challenge the visual system?

examine quiet standing w/ eyes open
observe balance strategies to maintain COG w/ and w/o visual input

assessment of potential visual field cuts, hemianopsia, pursuits, saccades, double vision, gaze control and acuity is necessary

7

What does the vestibule system provide>>

the CNS w/ feedback regarding the position and movement of the head w/ relation to gravity

8

what does the labyrinth consist of?

3 semicircular canals filled w/ endolymph and 2 otolith organs

9

what do semicircular canals respond to?

movement of fluid w/ head motion

10

what do otoliths measure?

effects of gravity and movements w/ regard to acceleration/decceleration

11

How do you challenge the vestibular system?

examine balance w/ head movement

testing such as Dix hall pike test, bithermal caloric testing, assessment for nystagmus, head thrust sign, testing the VOR reflex

12

What does the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) allow for?

head/eye movement coordination

13

what does VOR support and how?

gaze stabilization through eye movement that counters movements of the head

This maintains a stable image on the retina during movement

14

vestibulospinal reflex (VSR)

attempts to stabilize the body and control movement

15

what does the VSR assist with/.

stability while the head is moving as well as coordination of the trunk during upright postures

16

ankle strategry

elicited by a small range and slow velocity perturbation when the feet are on the ground

17

Which automatic postural strategy is activated first by a small range and slow velocity perturbation?

ankle

18

Pattern of muscle group contraction w/ ankle strategy

distal to proximal fashion

19

hip strategy

elicited by a greater force, challenge or perturbation through the pelvis and hips

20

which way do the hips move w/ hip strategy?

opposite direction from the head

21

Pattern of muscle group contraction w/ hip strategy

proximal to distal fashion

22

suspensatory strategy

used to lower the COG during standing or ambulation in order to better control the COG

23

examples of suspensatory strategy

knee flexion, crouching or squatting

24

when is the suspensatory strategy normally used?

when both mobility ands stability are required during a task (think surfing)

25

stepping strategy

elicited through unexpected challenges or perturbations during static standing or when the perturbation produces such a movement that the COG is beyond the base of support

LE step and/or UE reach

26

What does Berg balance scale assess?

pt's risk for falling

27

tasks in berg balance scale

static activities, transitional movements, and dynamic activities in sitting and standing positions

28

Berg Balance Scale score for risk for falling

< 45 = increased risk for falls

29

What does the Fregly-Graybiel Ataxia Test Battery asses?

balance dysfunction for pt's w/ high level motor skills

30

Test conditions w/ Fregly-Graybiel Ataxia Test Battery

stand on beam EO and EC
walk on beam w/ EO
sharpened Romberg
standing w/ EO and EC
standing on one leg EC
walking on the floor w/ EC