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Flashcards in Balance & Posture Deck (27)
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1

What is the point at which the force of gravity seems to be concentrated?

Center of mass/gravity

2

Why is the center of mass and center of gravity essentially the same thing?

Gravitational force of the earth is taken to be uniform at all places

3

What is the vertical line that represents gravity that passes through a system's center of mass/gravity?

Line of gravity

4

What is the area bound by regions of contact between a body and support surface or surfaces?

Base of support (BOS)

5

What is another term for balance?

Stability

6

What term means the ability to maintain the center of gravity within its base of support and also is resistance to disruption of equilibrium?

Balance (stability)

7

What is the base of support while seated? Standing?

Seated = thighs and buttocks
Standing = area between outer borders of feet

8

Does a larger or smaller base of support yield more stability?

Larger

9

What happens if the center of gravity moves beyond the limits of the base of support?

FALL!

10

Stability limits result from what?

Interaction between velocity and position of the COG

11

What things can influence stability?

Muscle strength, range of motion, fear of falls, perceived stability, environmental conditions

12

What is the term for the stereotypical alignment of body/limb segments?

Posture

13

What is postural control?

Controlling body position in space for stability and orientation

14

What does postural control depend on?

Integrity of nervous system, MSK system, special senses

15

What are the primary postural muscles?

Neck extensors, paraspinals, hip extensors, gastroc-soleus, quadriceps

16

Which is anticipatory postural control: feedforward or feedback control?

Feedfoward

17

Which is a compensatory or reactive postural response: feedforward or feedback control?

Feedback

18

Does sensory feedback from unexpected external perturbation trigger postural responses that are associated with feedforward or feedback control?

Feedback

19

Are postural responses made prior to voluntary movement that is potentially destabilizing in order to maintain stability during the movement seen with feedforward or feedback control?

Feedforward

20

Which is an example of a feedback control: voluntary movement or slipping on the ice outside?

Slipping on the ice outside

21

Which is an example of a feedforward control: voluntary movement or slipping on the ice outside?

Voluntary movement

22

During gait, one of the simplest ways to enhance stability is to utilize which form of control: feedforward or feedback?

Feedforward

23

What three inputs must be integrated during gait?

Visual, vestibular, proprioceptive

24

The Romberg test tests which input of postural control?

Visual

25

The Caloric Reflex Test tests which input of postural control?

Vestibular

26

What is the ultimate result of good posture?

Least amount of energy expended

27

With every one inch of forward head carriage, how many extra pounds must be supported by the spine?

Additional 10 pounds