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Flashcards in Balder's German 2 Deck (49)
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Kant's 4 contrasting terms of his moral philosophy

contrast 1 morality: duty v inclination
contrast 2 freedom: autonomy/heteronomy
contrast 3 reason: categorical v hypothetical imperatives
contrast 4 standpoint: intelligible v sensible realms


hypothetical vs categorical imperative, Kant

hypothetical imperative uses instrumental reasoning. If you want X, then do Y. It is conditional.
categorical imperative. by imperative he means 'unconditional'. only a categorical imperative can qualify as an imperative for morality.


What is Kant's categorical imperative?

1. Act only on that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
2. Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.



1. Konfessionalismus
excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, especially in religion.
"religious sectarianism"



a feudal tenant's or vassal's sworn loyalty to a lord.
"they owed fealty to the Earl rather than the King"
formal acknowledgement of loyalty to a lord.
"a property for which she did fealty"


Heteronomy as opposed to Autonomy

Heteronomy refers to action that is influenced by a force outside the individual, in other words the state or condition of being ruled, governed, or under the sway of another, as in a military occupation. Immanuel Kant, drawing on Jean-Jacques Rousseau, considered such an action nonmoral.



1. theoretisch


deontological v teleological ethics

Deontological ethics holds that at least some acts are morally obligatory regardless of their consequences for human welfare. ... By contrast, teleological ethics (also called consequentialist ethics or consequentialism) holds that the basic standard of morality is precisely the value of what an action brings into being.


deontological v utilitarian

Utilitarianism is an ethical philosophy stating that aggregate welfare or “good” should be maximized and that suffering or “bad” should be minimized. It is usually contrasted with deontological philosophy, which states that there are inviolable moral rules that do not change depending on the situation


intelligible v sensible

As adjectives the difference between sensible and intelligible. is that sensible is perceptible by the senses while intelligible is capable of being understood; clear to the mind.



1. Kontingenz
2. Zufälligkeit

a future event or circumstance which is possible but cannot be predicted with certainty.
"a detailed contract that attempts to provide for all possible contingencies"



1. beeinträchtigen
2. widerlegen


to cavil

make petty or unnecessary objections.
"they caviled at the cost"
1. Krittelei
2. Wortklauberei


Aristotle's 3 kinds of friendship

There are three kinds of friendship. The first is friendship based on utility, where both people derive some benefit from each other. The second is friendship based on pleasure, where both people are drawn to the other’s wit, good looks, or other pleasant qualities. The third is friendship based on goodness, where both people admire the other’s goodness and help one another strive for goodness.


white lie

a harmless or trivial lie, especially one told to avoid hurting someone's feelings.
"when I was young, I told little white lies"


Rule Utilitarian

Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance".



the doctrine that the morality of an action is to be judged solely by its consequences.


synonyms for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

Addition Plus, sum, more than, increased by x + 3x+3x, plus, 3
Subtraction Subtracted, minus, difference, less than, decreased by p - 6p−6p, minus, 6
Multiplication Times, product 8k8k8, k
Division Divided, quotient a \div 9a÷9


synonyms for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division

Addition Plus, sum, more than, increased by
Subtraction Subtracted, minus, difference, less than, decreased
Multiplication Times, product
Division Divided, quotient
The product of 8 and k can be written as 8k.



a result obtained by dividing one quantity by another.
a degree or amount of a specified quality or characteristic.
"the increase in Washington's cynicism quotient"


Math: product

a quantity obtained by multiplying quantities together, or from an analogous algebraic operation.


math: coefficient

a numerical or constant quantity placed before and multiplying the variable in an algebraic expression (e.g. 4 in 4x y).


Parmenides (560 BC – 510 BC)

In his only known work, the aptly titled poem On Nature, he tries to unravel the biggest question of all: Is it or is it not? His attempt at deciphering this philosophical question (a rhetorical one, some might say) leads to a rather paradoxical statement rather than a satisfying answer. Parmenides states that everything “that is” must have always been, since any arbitrary “nothing” would have to come from nothing itself. And in turn, it becomes a paradox because it is impossible to think of what “is not,” and again, it is also impossible to think of something that cannot be thought of. Subsequent philosophers would go on to try and simplify these philosophical impossibilities.


Anaxagoras (500 BC–428 BC)

Anaxagoras is credited as being the first to establish a philosophy in its entirety in Athens, a place where it would go on to reach its peak and continue to have an impact on society for hundreds of years to come. He devoted much of his time to explaining nature as it is, taking the universe as an undifferentiated mass until it was worked upon by a spiritual component which he called “nous” meaning “mind.” He believed that in the physical world, everything contained a part of everything else. Nothing was pure on its own, and everything was jumbled together in chaos. The application of nous assigns a certain motion and meaning to this chaos.


Anaximander (610 BC–546 BC)

Anaximander of Miletus is the famous pupil of, and in many ways a philosophical successor to, Thales himself. He is credited as being the first known writer on philosophy because the first surviving lines of Western philosophy were written by him. He is also well known in the fields of early biology and geography. He created the first world image of an open universe, a move away from the notion of a closed universe, making him the first speculative astronomer in human history.

He further extended the philosophical views of his master, proposing an “arche” or a principle that he believed to be the basis of the whole universe. But unlike Thales, he thought that this basis had an “apeiron” (an unlimited substance) that acted as a source for everything. This source acted as the prime point of differentiation for polar opposites like hot and cold, light and dark, and so on. Much of his work remains truncated, especially at the hands of subsequent generations of philosophers. But he was indeed one of the greatest minds in ancient Greece.


Empedocles (490 BC–430 BC)

Empedocles was one of the most important pre-Socratic era philosophers and even more outstanding were his poems that went on to have a great influence on later poets including the likes of Lucretius. One of his philosophical landmarks has been his assertion of the four-element theory of matter. It states that all matter is basically composed of four primary elements – earth, air, fire, and water. This became one of the earliest theories to have been postulated on particle physics, although some historians see it as a complex effort to negate the non-dualism theory of Parmenides.
He simply rejected the presence of any void or empty space, thus completely contradicting the philosophical ideology of Parmenides. He put forth the idea of opposite motive forces involved in the building of the world, namely love as the cause of union, and strife as the cause of separation. He also went on to become the first person to give an evolutionary account on the development of species.


Zeno (490 BC–430 BC)

Zeno further expanded and defended the philosophical ideologies established by Parmenides, which were facing much opposition from common opinion at that time. He propounded multiple paradoxes himself, which were debated among later generations of philosophers. The majority of contemporary arguments on his paradoxes were on the infinite division of time and space, such as if there is a distance, there is also half that distance and so on. Zeno was the first in philosophical history to show that the concept of infinity existed.


Pythagoras (570 BC–495 BC)

Another pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, Pythagoras is known far more for his theories and ideas in mathematics than in philosophy. In fact, he is best known for the theorem in geometry that is named after him. He is one of the most familiar names in pre-Socratic society, yet we know surprisingly little about him. He is credited with founding a philosophical school that amassed a great many followers.
It was at this school that Pythagoras tried to find a mutual harmony between real life and the practical aspects of philosophy. His teachings were not strictly confined to what we know as philosophy, but also included common issues like rules on living, what daily food to eat and so on. He regarded the world as the perfect harmony and based his teaching on how to lead a harmonious life.


Socrates (469 BC–399 BC)

Socrates embarked on a whole new perspective of achieving practical results through the application of philosophy in our daily lives, something that was largely missing in the approach of pre-Socratic philosophy. He openly moved away from the relentless physical speculations that previous philosophers had been so busy interpreting and assimilating and attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reasoning rather than various (and often widely debated) theological doctrines.

Instead of regurgitating ideas based solely on his individual interpretations, he would question people relentlessly on their beliefs, and try to find definitions of virtues by conversing with anyone proclaiming to possess such qualities. Socrates became a key figure and amassed numerous followers, but he also made many enemies. Eventually, his beliefs and realistic approach to philosophy led to his execution. But one might argue that his philosophical martyrdom, more than anything else, turned him into the iconic figure that he is today.


Plato (427 BC–347 BC)

Plato was a student of Socrates and was visibly influenced by the philosophical approach of his master. But while Socrates was relentlessly occupied with interpreting philosophy based on human reasoning, Plato combined the two major approaches of pre-Socratic metaphysics and natural theology with Socratic ethical theology.

The foundation of Plato’s philosophy is threefold: dialects, ethics, and physics, the central point of unison being the theory of forms. For him, the highest of forms was that of the “good,” which he took as the cause of being and knowledge. In physics, he agreed with many Pythagorean views. Most of his works, especially his most famous work The Republic, combine various aspects of ethics, political philosophy, and metaphysics among others, into a systematic, meaningful, and applicable philosophy.