Basic Anatomical Terms, Tissues Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Anatomy > Basic Anatomical Terms, Tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Anatomical Terms, Tissues Deck (32):
1

Axial

Head (skull)
Neck (Cervical region)
Trunk
-Thorax (Clavical - diaphragm
-Abdomen (Diaphragm - pevlis)
-Pelvis (Innominates & Sacrum)

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Appendicular

Upper Extremity
Lower Extremity

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Tissues

Group of similar cells and extracellular matrix which serve specific function.

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4 Types of Tissues

Muscle
Connective
Epithelial
Nervous

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Epithelial Tissue

Lines internal and external surfaces.

Protects other tissues and regulate movement into and out of other tissues.

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Muscle Tissue

Types
-Smooth
-Skeletal
-Cardiac

Generates force
Striated appearance.

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Nervous Tissue

Carries information.

Regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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Connective Tissue

All connective tissue contation protien fibers.

Definition: Cells and extracellular matrix that attaches (connects), anchors, and/or protects other tissue.

Matrix (what its made of) plays a very important role.

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Connective Tissue Different Protein (Matrix's)

Collagen
Elastic
Reticular

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Collagen

Made from collagen in tri-helical structure, well-organized, RESIST TENSILE LOADS (VERY LITTLE STRETCH).

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Elastic

Made from elastin, has the ability to stretch, devlop tension and RETURNS TO ORIGINAL LENGTH.

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Reticular

Made from collagen fibrils (small fibers), poorly organized.

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4 Types of Connective Tissue

Bone
Fibrous
Cartilage
Blood

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Mesenchyme

Embryological origin of all connective tissue. It is unspecialized.

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-blast

Makes or builds

ex.) Fibroblast make fibrocytes

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-cyte

Maintains and repairs. Cytes have extracellular matrix around them?

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Fibrous Connective Tissue Types

Loose
Dense

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Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue

The most abundant connective tissue in the body
Mostly Collagen
"Filler Tissue"
Hols Vessels and nerves
Poorly Organized
Found in subcutaneous areas

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Types of Loose Fibrous Connective Tissues

Aerolar
Adipose
Reticular

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Loose Fibrous Aerolar Connective Tissue

Type of Loose Fibrous Connective Tissue

Gel-like matrix with all three fiber type; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and some WBC.

Function: Wraps and cushions organs. Plays and important role is inflammation.

Located: Widely distributed under epithelia of body. Forms lamina propia of mucous membrane, packages organs; surrounds capillaries.

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Loose Fibrous Adipose Connective Tissue

Closely packed, fat cells.

Function: Provides reserve food fuel. Insulates, cushions, supports and protects organs.

Location: Under the skin; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breast.

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Loose Fibrous Reticular Connective Tissue

Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network.

Function: The fibers form a soft internal skeleton (Stroma) that supports other cell types including WBCs, mast cells and macrophages.

Located: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen.

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Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue

Primarily collagen
Various amount of organization in arrangement.

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Types of Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue

Regular
Irregular
Elastic

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Dense Regular Fibrous Connective Tissue

Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastin fibers; major cell type is the FIBROBLAST. It is WELL ORGANIZED.

Function: Attached muscles to bone or to muscle; Attaches bones to bones; withstand GREAT TENSILE STRESS when pulling force is applied in one direction.

Location: Tendons, Ligaments and Aponeuroses

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Dense Irregular Fibrous Connective Tissue

Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the FIBROBLAST.

Function: Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength.

Location: Dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract; fibrous capsules of organs and of joint

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Dense Elastic Fibrous Connective Tissue

Abundance of elastic fibers
The key to elastic connective tissue is that it stretches and then returns back to its original shape.

Location: Artery walls, Trachea and Some ligaments of the spine.

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3 Types of Cartilage

Hyalin
Fibrocartilage
Elastic Cartilage

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Hyalin Cartilage

Also called the articular cartilage (Found at the joints, ends of bones)

Embryonic precursor to bone

It Forms Synchondroses (almost immovable joints between bones bound by a layer of cartilage, as in the vertebrae.

The strongest types of cartilage: 40% collagen, 60% gel (proteoglycan)

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Fibrocartilage

Forms fibrocartilage pads (meniscus), symphses (like the pubic sympysis, unlike synchondroses, symphses are permanent).

Mostly made up of collagen. 70% Collagen, 10% elastic, 20% gel (proteoglycan).

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Elastic Cartilage

Mostly elastin

Found in epiglottis, outer ears, not in joints.

32

DO bone and Blood

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