Flashcards in Basic Anatomy Deck (28):
How many vertebrae are in the spine? How many spinal discs?
There are 24 vertebrae plus the iliac (pelvic wedge) and the coccyx, and 23 spinal discs.
What is the name of the top vertebrae in your back? How many are there?
There are 7 cervical vertebrae in your neck.
Describe the cervical vertebrae.
They are relatively small and have holes (formania) in their transverse processes.
Describe the thoracic vertebrae.
They are attached to our ribs and add stability.
Describe the lumbar vertebrae.
They are large, weight-bearing structures that have limited mobility. They are the most likely part of your back to get injured because they are weight-bearing.
Name the five section of the spine from top to bottom.
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
Describe the sacrum.
The sabrum consists of five fused vertebrae and it articulates with the two ilium bones to compete the pelvic ring.
Describe the coccyx.
Also known as the tailbone, it is a vestigial structure consisting of 3-4 vertebral remnants.
Name the three functions of spinal discs.
1. They are shock absorbers between vertebrae.
2. They perform as ligaments to hold the vertebrae of the spine together (bone to bone).
3. They function are cartilaginous joints that allow for slight mobility in the spine.
Describe the composition of the spinal discs.
Discs are composed of two parts: a tough outer portion and a soft inner core. The outer portion is made up of tough concentric sheets of collagen fibers and the inner core is essentially a protein jelly.
What is the difference between lateral and medial?
Lateral is farther away from the midline and medial is closer in towards the midline.
What is the difference between flexion and extension?
Flexion = forward
Extension = back
What is the difference between abduction and adduction?
Abduction is a movement that draws the limb away from the median axis of the body. Adduction is the act of drawing inward towards the median axis of the body
What is a herniated disc?
A herniated disc or ruptured disc is when the disc gets cracks in the annulus and the fluid of the nucleus escapes. The fluid then compresses the nerve roots (ex. the sciatic nerve).
What are ligaments?
Ligaments are strong fibrous tissues that attach bone to bone. They do not stretch well and cannot actively contract.
Name two major ligaments.
ACL and MCL
Name the primary functions of ligaments.
1. Provide stability for your joints.
2. Define the range of motion of some joints by limiting certain movements.
Describe the injury and healing process for a ligament.
Ligaments are usually injured by something high impact. Ligaments are poorly innervated and vascularized, meaning they don't have a lot of nerves or blood flow. This means when they are injured, it doesn't hurt that much but it takes a long time for them to heal. Students with torn ligaments shouldn't take class until they've been cleared by a doctor. Use heat for injured ligaments since it increases blood flow to the area.
What are tendons?
Tendons attach muscle to bone. They do not stretch well but provide excellent strength.
Describe the injury and healing process for a tendon.
Tendonitis typically comes over time from overuse, overstretching, or repetitive motion. Tendons are moderately innervated and poorly vascularized except for the ends nearest the muscle. This means that it hurts a lot when you injure them, but they don't heal quickly. Students with tendonitis should see a doctor, but can take class.
Name three tendons.
IT band, Achilles Tendon, Hamstrings tendon
Describe the injury and healing process for a muscle.
Muscles are highly innervated and vascularized, meaning it hurts to injure them but they heal quickly.
What are muscles?
Muscles are made of contractile tissue. They are the only kind of tissue that can create movement.
What are fast twitch and slow twitch fibers?
Every muscle has different bundles of fibers with separate nerves controlling specific bundles. Fast twitch fibers create speed and power (which BM develops) and slow twitch are good for endurance (long distance biking, running, etc.)
How many skeletal muscles are in the human body?
Describe the stages of tissue healing.
When we injure a tendon, muscle, or ligament, the healing process has 3 stages:
Stage 1: for the first 48 hours, blood rushes into the area causing swelling. Use "RICE" - rest (no class!), ice, compression, and elevation.
Stage 2: After a few days, the body sends healing substances through the blood stream to help repair the area. If the injury is mild, student can take class, if severe, needs to wait for repair process to finish.
Stage 3: Student can begin gentle strengthening and stretching to rehab the area. The body is creating scar tissue tying together the injured tissues, and if they're not stretched out they become a knot of scar tissue that will limit the mobility of the joint and cause pain.
Name the two basic roles muscles play.
Movers of our limbs and body and stabilizers to protect our spine and lock our trunk into position for vigorous activity.