What information can be provided to the health and fitness professional by knowing the client’s occupation
Common movement patterns
What is the waist-to-hip ratio for males and females that puts them at a greater risk for disease
A ratio greater than 0.95 - for males and greater than 0.80 for females
Feedback that provides information about the quality of the movement during exercise
Knowledge of performance
During a Pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s shoulder elevates
Middle/ lower Trapezius
A force that produces rotation
What is the functonal unit of the nervous system
Compensations observed during the Overhead Squat assessment from the lateral view
low back arches, excessive forward lean arms fall forward
What muscles action develops when a muscle exerts more force than is placed on it, resulting in the shorting of the muscle
Name the lengthened muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome
Anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, glueus maximus, dluteus medius, transversus abdominis, and internal oblique
Compensation observed during the overhead squat assessment from the anterior view
feet turn out and knees move inward
which muscles have decreased neural control once a client has had an ankle sprain
gluteus maximus and gluteus medius
what are the three support mechanisms of blood
transportation, regulation and protection
feedback used after the completion of movement to help inform clients about the outcome of their performance
knowledge of results
receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscles and the rate of that change
what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s arm fall forward during an overhead squat assessment
middle/lower trapezius, rhombolds, rotator cuff
during an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when a the client’s arm falls forward
latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major/minor
Risk for diesase increases when an overweight person’s BMI level is
25 or greater
After assessing a client’s overhead squat, which muscles should you have them strengthened
the heart rate training zone between 86 to 95% that builds high-end work capacity
during a pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s head protrudes forward
deep cervical flexors
what positional guidelines do you give a client who is setting up for an overhead squat assessment
feet shoulder-width apart and pointed straight ahead; for and ankle complex in a neutral position; arms raised overhead, with elbows fully extended.
represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts
systolic blood pressure
After assessing a client’s overhead squat, which muscles would you have them foam roll and stretch
represents the pressure within the arterial system when then heart is resting and filling with blood
diastolic blood pressure
what are the two main claf muscles that are responsible for concentrically accelerating plantar flexion
gastrocnemius and soleus
what are three methods of assessing body fat percentage
underwater weighing, bio-electrical impedance, and skin-fold measurements
name the imaginary bisector that divided the body into right and left halves
name the muscle that is responsible for concentrically accelerating hip extension and external rotation
the heart rate training zone between 65 to 75% that builds an aerobic base and aids in recovery
name some of the benfits of circumference measurements
can be used on obese clients, good for comparison and progressions, good for assessing fat pattern and distribution, inexpensive easy to record
what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s knees move inward during an overhead squat assessment
gluteus medius/maxius, vastus medialis oblique
during an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the knees move inward
adductor complex, biceps femoris (short hand), tensor fascia latae, vastus laterialis
during a pushign assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when a client’s shoulder elevates and/or the head moves forward
upper trapezius, sternoceidomastoid, and levator scapulae
the nueuromusculaer phenommenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
what muscle is responsible for concentrically accelerating shoulder extenion, adduction, and internal rotation
what relevant information can you learn about a client based on their occupation and movement capacity
extended periods of siting, repetitive movements, dress shoes, mental stress
name five performance assessment test
Davie’s, Shart Skill, Push-up, Upper Extremity Strength Assessment, Lower Extremity Strength Assessment
name the functional unit of the muscle that lies in the space between two Z lines. It produces muscular contraction and is formed by repeating sections of actin and myosin
this movement primarily occurs from side to side, as if there were a wall in front of and behind the body
frontal plane movements
the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
what are some primary causes of muscle imbalance
postural stress, emotional duress, repetitive movement, cumulative trauma, poor training technique
during an overhead squat assessment, what are probable underactive muscles when a client shows an excessive forward lean
anterior tibialis, glueus maciums, erector spines
a layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia, and surrounds the muscles
during an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when there is an excessive forward lean
soleus, gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex
what is the BMI range for a person who has a very high risk of disease
35.0 - 39.99
What muscle action develops tension while lengthening and prevents resistance from accelerating in an uncontrolled manner?
What are the four skin-fold sites tested when using the Durnin-Womersley formula for body fat assessment?
Biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest
Name the short muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome.
Gastrocnemius, soleus, hip flexor complex, adductors, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae
The process in which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to properly recruit muscles to produce force concentrically, reduce force eccentrically, and isometrically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion.
What are three guidelines for the health and fitness professional when taking the radial pulse of a client?
Touch should be gentle, take the pulse when the client is calm, take the pulse over the course of 3 days (at the same time each day) and average the results to ensure accuracy
Which muscles would be lengthened in a client with upper crossed syndrome?
Deep cervical flexors, serratus anterior, rhomboids, mid-trapezius, lower trapezius, teres minor, and infraspinatus
What do you call measurable data regarding a client’s physical state, such as body composition, movement assessments, and cardiorespiratory ability?
What is the level that a client is instructed to squat to when performing the Overhead Squat assessment?
Height of a chair
Name possible injuries associated with pronation distortion syndrome.
Plantar fasciitis, shin splints, patellar tendonitis, low back pain
Name the altered joint mechanics associated with lower crossed syndrome
Increased lumbar extension and decreased hip extension
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles if a client’s feet turn out?
Medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstring complex, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
Repeated practice of motor control processes, which leads to a change in the ability to produce skilled movements.
The heart rate training zone between 76 to 85% that increases both aerobic and anaerobic endurance
This chamber of the heart gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs.
The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response.
The name of the receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint.
When assessing a client during a Single-leg Squat, from which vantage point should you view the client?
Name possible injuries associated with upper crossed syndrome
Headaches, bicep tendonitis, rotator cuff impingement, and thoracic outlet syndrome
What is the starting zone of cardiorespiratory training when a client scores poor during the YMCA 3-Minute Step Test?
The Davies test is contraindicated for which group of people?
Individuals lacking shoulder stability
What are possible injuries associated with lower crossed syndrome?
Hamstring complex strain, anterior knee pain, low back pain
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
What regressions could you make for clients who are unable to perform a Single-leg Squat assessment?
Use outside support for squatting assistance or perform a Single-leg Balance without squat
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the low back arches?
Hip flexor complex, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Which muscle synergies (muscle groups) are primarily used in a Shoulder Press?
Deltoid, rotator cuff, trapezius
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the feet turn out?
Soleus, lateral gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris (short head)
: On which clients should health and fitness professionals avoid the use of skin-fold calipers to measure body fat?
Very overweight clients
Movement of the bones around the joints
Name the class of medication that decreases heart rate and blood pressure
The method of measuring body fat percentages that conducts an electrical current through the body to measure fat
What are the altered joint mechanics associated with pronation distortion syndrome?
Increased: Knee adduction and internal rotation, foot pronation and external rotation; Decreased: Ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
What is the amount of time recovery pulse is taken after completing the YMCA 3- Minute Step Test?
Within 5 seconds of completing the exercise, take the client’s pulse for 60 seconds
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Golgi tendon organs
Name the muscles involved in respiratory inspiration
Diaphragm, external intercostals, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor
Average stroke volume of an adult.
What is the starting zone of cardiorespiratory training when a client scores average on the YMCA 3-Minute Step Test?
Name the agonist, synergist, stabilizer, and antagonist muscles activated during a squat exercise.
Agonists: Gluteus maximus, quadriceps; Synergists: Hamstring complex; Stabilizer: Transversus abdominis; Antagonist: Psoas
Name two common tests for assessing cardiorespiratory efficiency.
YMCA 3-Minute Step Test and Rockport Walk Test
Name three postural distortion patterns that might be seen during a static postural assessment.
Pronation distortion syndrome, lower crossed syndrome, upper crossed syndrome
Altered reciprocal inhibition, synergistic dominance, and arthrokinetic dysfunction all lead to this
Name the assessment that measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control.
Shark Skill Test
What is an indicator that a female client’s ankle complex will be in a plantar flexed position for extended periods of time based on occupation?
Wearing dress shoes (high heels)
Name the systems of the human movement system (kinetic chain).
Nervous system, muscular system, skeletal system
What do you call information gathered from a client that includes their occupation, lifestyle, and medical background?
When is the best time for clients to measure their resting heart rate?
Upon waking in the morning
Name two abdominal muscles used for trunk rotation.
Internal and external obliques
The energy pathway used in moderate to high intensity activities that can only be sustained for 30 to 50 seconds.
Give the straight percentage method equation for calculating a client’s target heart rate.
(220-client’s age) x desired intensity
Name 2 conditions in which Beta-blockers might be prescribed
High blood pressure and arrhythmias
Name the energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body.
Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP
During an Overhead Squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client’s low back arches?
Gluteus maximus, hamstring complex, intrinsic core stabilizers
Muscles that assist the prime movers.
Muscles that assist the prime movers.
Essential body Fat 3-5% Athletic 5-13% Recommended (34 yrs or less) 8-22% Recommended (35-55 yrs) 10-25% Recommended (more than 56 years) 10-25%
Percent For Standard for a woman
Essential body fat 8-12% Athletic 12-22% Recommend (34 years or less) 20-35 Recommended ( 35-55 years) 23-35% Recommended ( more than 56 years) 25-35%
Percent For Standard for a Man
Essential body fat 3-5% Athletic 5-13% Recommend (34 years or less) 8-22% Recommended ( 35-55 years) 10-25% Recommended ( more than 56 years) 10-25%