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Flashcards in Basic Emergency Care Deck (44):

What does DRS ABCDE stand for?

D dangers/ Safety & Cause
R response
S shout for help

A airway control with c-spine protection
B breathing and oxygenation
C circulation and control of haemorrhage
D disability of the CNS
E exposure of the whole of the body & prevention


What is the acronym used for level of response?



What does AVPU stand for?

A alert
V voice
P pain
U unresponsive


What are the levels of voice response? (4)

•Inappropriate words
•Utter Sounds
•No verbal response


What are the different levels of pain response? (2)

•Localises Pain
•Responds only


What are the causes of airway restriction? (7)

•Decreased level of consciousness (LOC)
•Body Fluid
•Foreign body


What would you look at on assessing the airway? (3)

•Use of accessory muscles
•See-saw respiratory pattern


What would you listen for on assessing the airway? (4)



How would you intervene after assessing the airway? (6)
(If to conscious and no gag reflex)

•Head tilt chin lift
•Jaw thrust
•Oral airways
•Nasal airways


Once the airway is opened what oxygen sats would you aim for in patients without COPD and how would you achieve this? (3)

Give 15 litres of oxygen via a non-rebreathing mask, aiming for sats between 94-98%


What would you do to treat COPD patients and what sats are you aiming for?

For COPD patients reassess after ABCDE has been complete & keep sats 88-92%


What are the causes of laboured breathing?

•Decreased LOC
•Resp depressions
•Muscle weakness
•Pulmonary oedema
•Pulmonary embolus


What would you look for on assessment of breathing? (5)

•Rate (<10 or >20)
•Colour (cyanosis)


What would you listen for on assessment of breathing?

•Talking- Sentences, phrases, words
•Auscultation- wheeze, silent chest, added sounds


What would you feel for on assessment of breathing?(2)

•Chest expansion


How would you intervene if breathing is laboured? (3)

•Consider ventilation with bag/valve/mask if resp rate less than 10
•Position upright is struggling to breathe
•Specific Treatment
i.e. β agonist (Salbutamol inhaler for severe asthma)


How would you assess a patents circulation? (5)

•Look at colour
•Feel peripheries
•Capillary refill time
•blood pressure


What are the symptoms of Circulatory shock? (inadequate tissue perfusion) (3)

•Loss of blood volume (hypovolaemia)
•Pump failure
(cardiac causes)
(sepsis, anaphylaxis)


How would you intervene if your patient has circulatory shock? (8)

•Position supine with legs raised (left lateral tilt in pregnancy)
•IV access- 16G (if trained)
•SpO2 monitoring if available
•Keep the patient warm
•Loosen tight clothing


What are the causes of disability of the CNS? (6)

•Inadequate perfusion of the brain
• Sedative side effects of drugs
• Low Blood sugar
• Toxins and poisons
• Stroke
• Epilepsy


How would you assess a patient who you believe has disability? (5)

• AVPU (or GCS)
– Alert, responds to Voice, to Pain, Unresponsive
• Pupil size/response
• Posture
• Blood Sugar Monitoring (BM)
• Check drugs you've given


How would you intervene with a disabled patient? (6)

• Optimise airway, breathing & circulation
• Recovery position
• Treat underlying cause
• Treat low BM
– Sugary drinks, oral gel, Glucogon injection
• Control seizures, buccal Midazolam
• 9-999


What would you examine for on exposure? (3+)

•Haemorrhage (inc concealed)


What would you do while exposing the patient? (3)

• Keep warm
• Maintain dignity
• Monitor Vital signs regularly


What will you explain on handover of the patient? (3)

• What happened SBAR
Situation, Brief history, Assessment, recommendation
• What you found on ABCDE and AMPLE
• What you have done


What are the signs and symptoms of a fracture? (5)

• Visible Fracture.
• Deformity
• Pain
• Swelling
• Discoloration.


How would you manage a patient with a fracture? (8)

• Immobilisation of the affected area
• Get Help!
• Keep patient still support the injury
• Arm fractures a sling can be made
• Splints to support and immobilise
• Openfractures-controlthebleeding
• Monitor limb circulation


What is a colles fracture?

It is a distal fracture of the radius in the forearm, with dorsal (posterior) displacement of the wrist.


What are the three classifications of a burn?

1. Superficial burns
2. partial thickness burns
3. full-thickness burns


How would you manage burns and scalds? (5)

•Monitor ABC as SHOCK likely
•Cool running water for 10 mins
(has cooling affects, stops burning process)
•remove clothing and jewellery (if able)
•burnt are should be covered
•airway burns / smoke inhalation


What are the four ways poison can enter the body?

• inhalation through the lungs
• absorption through the skin
• ingestion through the mouth
• injection


How would you manage a poisoned patient? (8)

•ABC and medical help/ambulance
•Find out the cause of poisoning
•If poison absorbed through skin remove all clothing and irrigate
•Collect omitted material, medications
•Get time of poison ingestion
•Find out how much has been taken
• Rinse mouth
•DO NOT: make the casualty vomit or give fluid (in general)


How would you control a haemorrhage? (5)

•Position casualty
•expose wound and check for foreign body
•pressure applied followed by firm dressing x2
•elevate limb if possible
•tourniquets (if trained)


What are the symptoms of shock?(8)

•Nausea and vomitting
•Rapid breathing
•Fast and weak pulse
•Pale cold and clammy skin
•Reduces consciousness
•Confusion and anxiety


What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis? (9)

•collapse and unconsciousness
•Swelling of throat and mouth
•difficulty breathing
•alterations in heart rate
•drop in blood pressure
•abdominal pain, nausea and vomitting
•sense of impending doom
•nettle rash (hives) urticarial rash


How would you treat anaphylaxis? (6)

• Remove source (trigger) of reaction
• If life threatening complications 999
• Oxygen if needed
• Position patient that most relieves any breathlessness.
• Raise legs if possible.
• Administer the auto-injector if they have one or 500mcg Adrenaline IM repeat every 5 mins if needed.


How would you treat an epileptic patient? (7)

• Maintain airway
• If possible try to ease fall.
• Loosen tight clothing.
• If unconscious position in ????????
• Look for med alert tag
• Monitor time of seizure if more than 5 minutes or first seizure need 999
• Do not: put anything in the mouth.


What are the symptoms of hypoglycaemia? (10)

•Fast heartbeat
•Impaired vision
•Weakness, fatigue


What are the symptoms of hyperglycaemia?(7)

•Extreme thirst
•Frequent urination
•Dry skin
•Blurred vision


How would you treat hypoglycaemia?

With glucose or glucagon.


How would you treat hyperglycaemia?

Treat for shock/dehydration


What are the signs and symptoms of acute coronary syndrome? (7)

• Collapse, often without any warning
• Breathlessness and blueness (cyanosis)
• Faintness or dizziness
• Pale, cold and clammy skin
• A rapid, weak, or irregular pulse
• Nausea and/or vomiting.
• Have a sense of impending doom


How would you manage a patient symptomatic of acute coronary syndrome? (9)

• 999 for an ambulance
• Loosen clothing
• Sit in W position
• Oxygen if breathless
• GTN spray help them to take it.
• Aspirin (300mg) tablet
• Monitor and record vital signs
• Reassure and rest and keep calm


What does MONA stand for and what is it used for?

Used for suspected MI early treatment
Morphine analgesia
Oxygen (high flow)
Nitroglycerin (sublingual)
Aspirin 300mg