Pulmonary Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Neoplasia Deck (47):
1

What are the two types of primary lung neoplasms?

benign (rare)

&

malignant (very common)

2

What is the second type of lung neoplasm?

Metastatic (very common)

3

What is this?

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Lung Abcess

4

What in tobacco smoke causes cancer?(5)

  • polycyclic hydrocarbons
  • aromatic amines
  • phenols
  • nickel
  • cyanates

5

What are other risk factors?(6)

  • Asbestos
  • nickel
  • chromates
  • radiation
  • atmospheric pollution
  • genetics

6

What will the patient have if they present with pain?

Invasion of Chest Wall

7

What is the cause of haemoptysis?

Ulceration

8

What will cause the obstruction of the airway?

pneumonia

9

What is the distal area of yellow discolouration?

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Pneumonia

10

How will the patient present with metastases?

  • lymph nodes

11

Where are the three most common areas of metastases?

liver

brain

bones

12

What are the systemic effects of cancer?

  • weight loss
  • "ectopic" hormone production

13

What hormone will be produced if cance is squamous cancer?

Parathyroid hormone

(PTH)

14

What hormone will be produced if cancer is small cell?

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

(ACTH)

15

Are lung cancers heterogenous or homogenous ?

Very heterogenous

16

What are the 4 most commone smoking-associated types of lung tumours?

  • adenocarcinoma (35%)
  • sqaumous carcinoma (30%)
  • small call carcinoma (25%)
  • large cell carcinoma (10%)

17

What are two other types of lung tumour?

  • neuroendocrine tumours
  • bronchial gland tumours

18

How would you diagnose a tumour?

  • bronchoscopy and biopsy of the tumour if seen
  • biopsy or needle aspiration of metastases  (especially mediastinal or supraclavicular lymph nodes)

19

Why do we classify cancer?

  • prognosis
  • treatment
  • pathogenesis/biology
  • epidemiology

20

What is the order of survival time with classification (longest to shortest)?

  • squamous or adenocarcinoma
  • large cell
  • small cell

21

What is the treatment for small cell cancer?

It is known to be chemosensitive but has rapidly emerging resistance

 

22

What is the surgery of choice for NSCLC?

Surgery

chemotherapy/radiotherapy are also options

23

What oncogenes are present in SCLC?

myc

24

What oncogenes are present in NSCLC?

myc, K-ras, her2(neu)

25

What tumour supressor genes are mutated in SCLC?

p53, Rb, 3p

26

What tumour supressor genes are supressed in NSCLC? (6)

p53, 1q, 3p, 9p, 11p, Rb

27

What causes the activation of the EGFR gene?

Specific point mutations render the EGFR gene active in the absence of ligand (epidermal growth factor) binding 

28

How would you identify a mutation in the DNA?

By DNA in biopsy or cytology samples

29

What kind of tumours respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors? (erlotinib)

Adenocarcinoma (especially in asian population and non-smokers)

30

What does EML4-ALK fusion oncogene do?

It identifies a target for specific drug treatment (crizotinib)

31

What are four kinds of bronchial (large airway tumours)?

  • squamous metaplasia
  • dysplasia
  • carcinoma in situ
  • invasive malignancy

32

What are peripheral carcinomas?

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

 

33

What happens in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia?

Spread of neoplastic cells along alveolar walls (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), these are true invasive adenocarcinoma

34

What are the prognostic indicators in lung cancer? (2)

  • tumour stage
  • tumour histological subtype

35

What is a carcinoid neoplasm?

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of low grade malignancies

36

What are two types of bronchial gland neoplasms

  • adenoid cystic carcinoma
  • mucoepidermoid carcinoma

37

What is the name of the cancer associated with pleural neoplasia?

Mesothelioma

38

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Adenocarcinoma (gland forming)

39

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Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia

40

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Basal Cell Hyperplasia

41

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Dyplasia Carcinoma in Situ

42

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Large Cell Carcinoma

43

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Lung Abscess

44

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Small cell carcinoma

45

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Squamous Carcinoma Keratinising

46

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Squamous Metaplasia

47

What is the tumour obstructing?

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White tumour obstructing bronchus