Scalars

Magnitude i.e. mass, time

Vectors

magnitude with direction i.e. velocity, acceleration, force

Newton's 1st law

Law of inertia

- Any change in speed or change in direction changes inertia
- proportional to mass. Bowling ball has more inertia than tennis ball

Newton's 2nd Law

F=ma

- Constant force increases velocity, not acceleration

Newton's 3rd Law

Action-Reaction

- Every action has an equal and opposite reaction

Distance

total distance traveled (scalar)

Displacement

Shortest distance between point A and B.

Speed

Rate of change of distance (scalar)

Velocity

Rate of change of displacement (vector)

"Consant velocity" or "constant speed"

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- no acceleration
- no net force
- all forces sum to zero
- no change in direction
- object is in equilibrium

Systems in equilibrium

How to solve:

- Make two columns depciting opposite forces
- write all forces in applicable column
- add up each column and set equal to each other
- solve for unknown

Acceleration

Changes in objects velocity in relation to time.

Potential vs. Kinetic energy

PE: potential something has (height of object)

KE: energy of motion

- Both are in equilibrium. As object falls from specific height, PE decreases and KE increases.

Archimedes' Principle

The amount of liquid that object displaces is directly proportional to the volume of the portion of the object that is submerged.

Buoyant Force

F_{buoy} = pvg

v= fluid displaced g=gravity p=density of the **fluid**

Apparent Weight (AW) = Actual Weight (aW) - Buoyant Force (F_{buoy})

- only applies to objects that are fully submerged

Flow Rate

Q=AV

Q=flow rate

A=cross sectional area

V=velocity