Basic Topography Flashcards Preview

2.4.1. Nervous System > Basic Topography > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Topography Deck (45):
1

Where is the hippocampus found?

Temporal lobe

2

Which cranial N emerges ventrally from the ponto-medullary junction?

Abducens

3

The superior colliculus is part of which structure?

Midbrain

4

Outline the motor homunculus

Medial - lower limbs

Intermediate - hands

Lateral - face

5

Which part of the brainstem lies at the level of the tentorium cerebelli?

Midbrain

6

Bridging veins transverse which space?

Subdural space

7

What does the CNS encompass?

Cerebral hemispheres

Brainstem and cerebellum

Spinal cord

8

What does the PNS encompass?

Dorsal and ventral roots

Spinal nerves

Peripheral nerves

Ganglion

9

What is grey matter?

Composed of cell bodies and dendrites and synapses

Highly vascular (reflects its ‘computational’ role)

Cerebral cortex

10

What is white matter?

Composed of axons (supporting cells)

White due to fatty myelin

Corpus callosum

11

Define basal ganglia

A group of subcortical structures known to be involved in motor function

12

What is the PNS equivalent of grey matter?

Ganglion

13

What is the PNS equivalent of white matter?

Peripheral N

14

Describe the white and grey matter structure of the brain

Like the cord

Central grey matter surrounded by white matter then surrounded by extra layer of grey matter

15

Describe a spinal cord segment?

Cord has a central core of grey matter and an outer shell of white matter

Each segment connects with a spinal (mixed) N through dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) roots

Dorsal N root has a swelling = spinal ganglion

16

How can symptoms relate to spinal cord lesions?

Sensory and motor = mixed = lesion in spinal nerve

Just sensory = lesion in dorsal root

Just motor = lesion in ventral root

17

Define funiculus

Segment of white matter containing multiple distinct tracts – axons up/down

Impulses travel in multiple directions

3 in the CNS = dorsal, ventral, lateral

18

Define tract

Connection between 2 regions of grey matter

An anatomically and functionally defined white matter pathway connecting two distinct regions of grey matter.

Impulses travel in one direction

19

Define fasciculus

A subdivision of a tract supplying a distinct region of the body

20

Describe how the grey matter is divided?

Functionally distinct

Histologically district

21

Define nucleus

Collection of functionally related cell bodies

22

Define cortex

Folded sheet of cell bodies found on the surface of the brain

1-5mm thick

23

Define fibre (white matter)

Axon with its supporting cells

Association = connects regions in the same hemisphere

Commissural = connect L and R hemispheres (corpus callosum)

Projection = connect cerebral hemispheres with cord/brainstem

24

What is the role of the midbrain?

Eye movements

Reflex responses to sound and vision

25

What is the role of the pons?

Feeding

Sleep

26

What is the role of the medulla?

Cardiovascular and respiratory centres

Contains major motor pathways – medullary pyramids

27

What is the central sulcus?

Sitting in the coronal plane

Key landmark separating frontal and parietal lobes

28

What is the precentral gyrus?

Contains primary motor cortex

29

What is the postcentral gyrus?

Contains primary sensory cortex

30

What is the lateral fissure?

Separates the temporal from the frontal/parietal lobes

31

What is the parieto-occipital sulcus?

Separates parietal from occipital lobe

32

What is the calcarine sulcus?

Primary visual cortex surrounds this

33

Describe the optic chiasm

A site where fibres in the visual system cross over

34

What is the uncus?

Part of the temporal lobe that can herniate, compressing the midbrain

Important olfactory role

35

Describe the medullary pyramids

Location of descending motor fibres (each has 1 million)

36

Describe the parahippocampal gyrus

Key cortical region for memory encoding

37

What is the corpus callosum?

Fibres connecting the two cerebral hemispheres

38

Describe the thalmus

Sensory station projecting to sensory cortext

39

What is the role of the cingulate gyrus?

Cortical area important for emotion and memory

40

What is the role of the hypothalamus?

Essential centre for homeostasis

41

Describe the fornix

Major output pathway from the hippocampus

42

Describe the tectum


Dorsal part of the midbrain involved in involuntary responses to auditory and visual stimuli

43

What can happen to the cerebellar tonsil?


Part of the cerebellum that can herniate and compress the medulla

44

What are the ventricles of the brain?

Hollow cavities

Contain choroid plexus which makes 600-700ml of CSF per day

45

Where is CSF reabsorbed?

Granulations in the superior sagittal sinus