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Flashcards in BASICS Deck (40)
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1

Inactive or stored energy is called __________ energy

potential

2

Isotopes differ from each other only in the number of __________ they possess.

neutrons

3

Atoms that are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable are specifically termed __________.

radioisotopes

4

The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is called the __________.

atomic mass number

5

Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution (because they contain ions) are called __________.

electrolytes

6

The outermost shell of an atom is called the __________ shell

valence

7

An acid is a molecule that releases (donates) __________. State the answer in two ways

protons; hydrogen ions

8

Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all examples of a specific category of carbohydrates called __________

monosaccharides

9

The category of organic compounds that are composed of four interconnected rings of carbon atoms is known as __________.

steroids

10

The amino acid sequence of a protein is known as its ________ structure.

primary

11

The molecule with which an enzyme reacts is a(n) ________

substrate (reactant)

12

A liquid in which other substances dissolve is a(n) ________

solvent

13

Protons and neutrons are located in the ________ of an atom

nucleus

14

Nucleotides are joined by sugar-phosphate bonds to form polymers called __________

nucleotides

15

The universal energy compound that provides immediately usable energy to cells is __________

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

16

________ control the rate of chemical reactions that occur in the human body.

Enzymes

17

________ are compounds that in solution maintain pH within given limits

Buffers

18

A(n) ________ is a homogeneous mixture containing a solvent and a solute

solution

19

The tertiary structure of a protein is determined by interactions between _____________ of different amino acids within the polypeptide sequence.

R groups

20

The simplest atom containing one proton, one electron, and no neutronsis ____________

hydrogen

21

A peptide bond links two __________

two amino acids

22

Calcium atoms have two electrons in the outermost shell. As a result, you would expect calcium to form ions with a charge of ____________.

+2

23

Which type of chemical bonds must be broken for water to vaporize?

hydrogen bonds

24

A chain of 100 amino acids would be called a ________

polypeptide

25

The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of the __________ structure of a protein

secondary

26

) An atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass number is ____________

14

27

An atom has 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 7 electrons. The number of electrons in its valence shell is ____________.

5

28

Negatively charged atoms are called cations

f

29

Disruption of the hydrogen bonds of functional proteins leads to their denaturation

t

30

Enzymes decrease the rates of chemical reactions.

f

31

Starch and glycogen are both polysaccharides

t

32

The lower the pH, the greater the number of hydrogen ions

f

33

When a solution produces equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, it is said to be neutral

t

34

The hydrolysis of an organic polymer is an example of an exothermic reaction

t

35

All atoms of a certain element have the same number of protons, but they can differ in the number of neutrons

t

36

The conversion of polysaccharides to monosaccharides is an example of dehydration synthesis

t

37

A protein is said to have a quaternary structure when it is composed of two or more polypeptide chains

t

38

Matter is most stable when it contains the maximum amount of potential energy.

f

39

Lysine is an example of an amino acid with a nonpolar side chain.

f

40

The glycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat," which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.

f