BB Ch30 - Animal Models in Research Flashcards Preview

Experimental Techniques & Research > BB Ch30 - Animal Models in Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in BB Ch30 - Animal Models in Research Deck (36):
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1. Analogous processes relate

one structure or process to another

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2. Homologous processes reflect

counterpart genetic sequences

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5. Animal models characterized by: normal animals with physiologic mechanisms similar to those of humans or abnormal animals that arise naturally through mutation(s) are called:

spontaneous

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6. Name the common animal model with their disease:
BB Wistar rats
Wantanabe rabbits
New Zealand Black/White mice
Gunn rat
SCID mice

BB Wistar rats -- type I diabetes mellitus
Wantanabe rabbits -- hypercholesterolemia
New Zealand Black/White mice -- autoimmune disease
Gunn rat -- hereditary hyperbilirubinemia
SCID mice -- severe combined immunodeficiency

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9. The assay developed using X. laevis embryos and larvae to document developmental abnormalities associated with environmental chemicals is called:

frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX)

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10. Oncornavirinae, Lentivirinae, and Spumavirinae are the three subfamilies of:

retroviruses

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11. This subfamily of virus is known to infect and cause cancer in multiple species:

ocornavirinae

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13. This species has been used extensively for studies in development because their embryos are transparent, each clutch contains 50-100 embryos, and they are amenable to large-scale mutagenesis:

zebrafish

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15. A variety of _________ have been developed to control the expression of transferred genes in transgenic animals.

promoters

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17. Mice cloned from embryonic stem cells rather than from the low-passage primary cell cultures used in the past show

mitochondiral heterogeneity

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18. The nematode in which multiple induced mutations were found to extend life span is:

Caenorhabditis elegans

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19. Decrease in DNA telomere length and accumulation of extrachromasomal rDNA circles has been associated with

aging/decrease in lifespan

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20. Mutations for the gene for this protein have been found in human families with familial Alzheimer’s disease

amyloid precursor protein

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23. He perceived the defects inherent in the scholastic method practiced before him and set the tenets for what would become hypothesis testing.

Francis Bacon

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26. Serendipity contributes to important discoveries: the cause of beriberi was discovered to be a deficiency of this vitamin after chickens fed polished boiled rice developed a similar condition.

thiamin

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28. This method for predicting protein function looks for the correlation of protein inheritance across species.

phylogenetic profiling

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29. This method for predicting protein function looks for correlation of protein domains across species.

Rosetta stone method

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32. True scientific inquiry began in which country?

Greece

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34. Pasteur developed the first vaccine against what disease?

rabies

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35. Robert Koch developed what substance to identify infected animals and people?

tuberculin

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39. The organisms that were amongst the first to have its entire genome sequenced was:

E. coli
yeast
Drosophila melanogaster

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40. The standard tuberculin skin test was one of the first demonstrations of

cellular immunity

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41. Knowledge of what blood factor has allowed the treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?

Rh factor

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42. The site of antibody-producing B cells in the chick is

bursa of Fabricias

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43. The concept that early antigen exposure prevents the immune system from recognizing the antigen later as foreign is referred to as

acquired immunological tolerance

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44. The genetic locus important in allograft rejection is referred to as

major histocompatibility locus (MHC)

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45. This cell, discovered in the 1960s, was later found to mediate graft rejection, modulate antibody synthesis, and directly participate in the eradication of infectious agents and cancer:

T cell

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46. Cells presenting MHC II molecules stimulate

CD4 cells

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47. Cells presenting antigen together with MHC I molecules stimulate

CD 8 cells

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48. SCID mouse immunodeficiency is due to a mutation in which gene?

rag1

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49. Acute allograft rejection is mediated by

CD4 & CD8 cells

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50. Apoptosis and immune tolerance are linked through the activation of immuno-regulatory mechanisms mediated by

inhibitory cytokines

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51. Based on new immunologic knowledge, experimental applications of vaccines are also being developed for

autoimmune diseases & cancer

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52. Genotyping family members at risk to identify candidates for disease before symptoms and using certain autoantigens, when delivered by oral route, to induce tolerance are strategies developed to combat

autoimmune diseases

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53. Levamisole, developed as a cattle wormer, is now used together with 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of

colon cancer

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54. Ivermectin, developed as a preventative for heartworm disease in dogs, is now being used to treat people for

onchocerciasis (river blindness)