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Flashcards in BB Ch23 Deck (69):
1

6. Name the veins and the recommended volumes for IV injection of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, marmoset, and baboon.

mouse – lateral tail vein 0.2ml
rat – lateral tail vein 0.5 ml
hamster – femoral or jugular vein 0.3 ml
guinea pig – ear vein or saphenous vein 0.5 ml
rabbit – marginal ear vein 1-5ml slowly
cat – cephalic vein 2-5 ml slowly
dog – cephalic vein 10-15 ml slowly
marmoset – lateral tail vein, 0.5-1 ml
baboon – cephalic, recurrent tarsal, or jugular vein, 10-20 ml slowly.

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8.
When collecting blood from mice, a glass capillary tube or Pasteur pipette is used to penetrate the orbital conjunctiva and rupture the ___________.
Name some potential complication of this type of blood sampling.

8.
orbital sinus
retro-orbital hematoma, abscess, ocular injury or phthisis bulbi.

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10. Name two vasodilators that may facilitate blood flow when sampling blood from the tail in rodents.

limonene and oil of wintergreen

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11. List methods of blood sampling from the guinea pig.

blood sampling guinea pigs – cutting a toenail close to nailbed, veins of ear (puncture or laceration), medial saphenous vein of anesthetized guinea pig, dorsal lateral vein of penis.

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12. T or F: blood can be obtained from the jugular vein of awake, restrained rabbits.

True - the technique requires two people to perform, animal in dorsal recumbency.

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13. List five anatomical locations for blood sampling in the ferret.

Toe nail, caudal artery of tail, jugular, cephalic
cardiac puncture – terminal only and under anesthesia

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14. List four veins for blood sampling in dogs and cats.

Cephalic, recurrent metatarsal, jugular and femoral veins

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16. What is the scientific name for owl monkey? List four veins for blood sampling in nonhuman primates. Which one is the most commonly used vein for blood sampling?

Aotus trivirgatus
Cephalic, coccygeal, femoral veins (most commonly used), jugular – under anesthesia.

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17. What are the scientific names for the Gray short-tailed opossum?
Nine-banded armadillo?
List the veins for blood sampling from each.

Monodelphis domestica - heart, lateral and ventral tail veins, femoral vessels, pouch veins
Dasypus novemcinctus - puncture caudal tail vein between 2nd and 3rd or 3rd and 4th borny tail segments.

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18. How are armadillos restrained?

use modified PVC tube.

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19. What is the scientific name for Japanese quail? Name 3 locations for avian blood sampling and IV injection.

Coturnix coturnix japonica
Brachial veins of wing, jugular vein and heart

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20. What spp. is African land snail? How is hemolymph collected from snails?

Achatia spp.
Insert needle below pneumostome.

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21. ______ has been proposed as surrogate spp. for vertebrates in toxicity studies related to environmental pollution.

Earthworms

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22. ______ are used when a study requires repeated blood sampling or administration of substances over extended time.

Catheters

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23. In addition to proper handling, how else is catheter related sepsis prevented?

Antibiotic and enzyme infusion into catheter, protection of catheter.

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24. What are the most common methods of protecting canulas?

Subcutaneous tunnel from site of vessel cannulation to dorsum of the neck or leather or canvas vests.

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27. Name the location of intraperitoneal injection in rodents. What is the reason for choosing this location?

Lower left quadrant of abdomen – organs absent.

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28. Where is the location of sciatic nerve in common laboratory animals?

Posterior to femur

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30. What name is given to the communication between oropharynx and pharynx on dorsal midline of soft palate? Name two laboratory animals with this anatomy.

Palatal ostium. Guinea pigs, chinchilla.

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31. What animal has pharyngeal diverticulum?

Swine

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It is possible to extract nonhuman primate teeth nonsurgically.

Yes, use 20% solution of KOH, made into a gel with carbopol 934 (a water soluble resin) = loosens mandibular and maxillary teeth, teeth easily removed.

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34. What is the difference between pulpotomy and pulpectomy?

pulpotomy = partial removal of tooth pulp
pulpectomy = total removal of tooth pulp.

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35. What is the dental formula of A) Old World Monkeys B) New World Monkeys?

OWM 2I 1C 2P 3M = 32
NWM 2I 1C 3P 3M = 36.

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36. Intravenous injection of pancreozymic enzymes and cholecytokinin cause contraction of which organ? Animal models in which bile can be collected are used for what research studies?

Gall bladder. Pharmacokinetic studies.

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37. T or F: In rodents, entire lobes of liver may be removed as biopsy tissue.

True, little risk of hemorrhage when hemoclips are used to ligate blood vessels. Absorbable sutures can also be used.

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38. Studies of pancreatic endocrine function usually involve the chemical ablation of the pancreatic islets. Name two chemicals used for this purpose.

Alloxan and streptozotocin. These are used to induce diabetes in lab animals.

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39. Why is it virtually impossible to surgically remove all of the pancreas in rodents?

It has diffuse anatomy. Chemical ablation is the method of choice.

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40. Name one laboratory animal that is resistant to the diabetogenic effects of alloxan and streptozotocin.

cat

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41. In order to create a segment of digestive tract that has no continuity with the fecal stream (ie intestinal loop), what surgical method is used?

Intestinal anastomosis.

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42. What is RITARD model?

Reversible intestinal tie-adult rabbit diarrhea, developed to allow temporary occlusion of a section of bowel for bacterial colonization studies in the rabbit. Involves permanent cecal ligation just distal to the sacculus rotundus, preventing absorption of fluids secreted from the small intestine.

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43. List four methods by which urine is removed from the urinary bladder.

Collection during spontaneous micturition, manual compression of urinary bladder, catheterization, and cystocentesis-and use of metabolic cages.

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44. What is the most common complication of urinary system catheterization in the guinea pig?

Spontaneous ejaculation in males and blocking of catheter by coagulum.

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45. What is the correct internal diameter of endotracheal tube that can be used for rabbit intubation?

4.0-4.5 mm internal diameter.

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46. For what studies is tracheal pouch used? How is it created?

It is a model for studying tracheal secretions. The technique involves resecting a segment of cervical tracheal, with blood and nerve supply intact, and relocating this closed segment subcutaneously for ease in sampling.

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47. When creating a permanent tracheostomy, the procedure involves dissecting portions of the cartilaginous rings, cutting through the mucosa, and suturing the mucosa to the --------.

skin

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48. Brochoscopy of which lab animal has been recommended for instruction of physicians in otolaryngology?

swine

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49. Name one purpose for doing bronchoalveolar lavage in animals.

recovery of cells, surfactants and inhaled substances from the lungs of animals.

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50. What gases are used to inflate the abdomen during laparoscopy?

5% carbon dioxide and 5% nitrogen.

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51. What position is the animal placed when observing the organs under laparoscopy?

steep Trendelenburg position

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52. In general, laparoscopy of experimental animals as a general technique has been used extensively for training ------. In veterinary practice, laparoscopy may be used for what?

physicians. Examination of abdominal contents, peritoneal surfaces, and a range of procedures.

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53. For semen sample collection, name one advantage of training animals to serve an artificial vagina over use of rectal probe electroejaculation method.

avoids urine contamination of semen in electroejaculation.

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54. For artificial insemination, several types of semen diluents have been tried. Name three.

dilutents: tomato juice, coconut milk, glycerol, egg york, lactose, skim milk solution.

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55. From vaginal smear, the presence of what type of cells indicates ovulation in primates and most other species? What is the implication of observing these cells for a scheduled implantation?

cornified epithelial cells; the female is determined to be in a receptive stage for implantation.

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56. How is ovulation induced?

inject PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin).

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57. List three methods to determine successful mating in rodents that can be characterized as day 0 of pregnancy.

observe copulation, look for and observe vaginal plug, obtain vaginal smears and observe spermatozoa.

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58. List other methods for pregnancy diagnosis in general.

ultrasonography, rectal palpation (digital palpation in nonhuman primates), radiographs, chemical tests.

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59. At what temperature are mouse embryos stored?

–196 C

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60. Name some common cryoprotectants used for long-term storage of embryos.

DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), ethylene glycol, glycerol, and erythritol.

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61. Which animal has been the classic model for intrauterine fetal surgery on life threatening congenital malformations such as diaphragmatic hernia and some cardiac anomalies?

sheep

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62. blood pressure measurements of which artery is of considerable importance in studying the effects of drugs on the lung vasculature and diagnosis of lung and heart diseases?

pulmonary artery

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63. What is the purpose of performing a carotid-jugular shunt technique in an experimental animal?

for attachment of an experimental animal to an extracorporeal circuit or for obtaining repeated blood samples.

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64. In one sentence, describe microangiography technique. What chemicals are used for this technique?

a technique in which blood vessels are visualized by the use of roentgen contrast medium and microradiographic techniques. 1 mg/kg heparin and finely ground barium sulphate.

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65. Why is it that rodents are popular for studies requiring hypophysectomy? [Hint: it is not their size].

they have an almost flat sella turcica that positions the hypophsis for rapid and easy removal.

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66. List the different techniques of hypophysectomy in lab animals.

transauricular, parapharyngeal (rodents), transsphenoidal (dog), intracranial(dog), retropharyngeal, paraocular (rabbits), transtemporal plus parapharyngeal (calves).

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67. T or F. Pinealectomy requires use of a stereotaxic instrument.

True

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68. What is adrenalectomy? What is the consequence of removing both adrenal glands?

surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands. Removal of both adrenal glands causes severe physiological changes that are difficult to correct with replacement therapy, and is rarely used technique, except in the ferret (high prevalence of adrenal gland tumors).

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69. Which glands are critical for the body to maintain the proper calcium and phosphorus metabolism?

parathyroid glands.

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70. Surgical thyroidectomy produces temporary hypothyroid state. What additional compound needs to be administered for long-term hypothyroid state?

131I – to destroy developing thyroid rests.

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71. Fracture healing is one area of orthopedic research in which use of animals is required. List two other areas.

prosthetic design and implantation, bone transplantation.

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72. What is lumbar sympathectomy?

Excision of the hypogastric nerve.

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73. What is spinal laminectomy?

procedure to expose spinal cord in larger lab animals.

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74. Stereotaxic brain electrode implantation involves the use of an instrument for immobilizing animal’s head and calibrated to identify ----- in the brain for placement of electrodes in premapped structures. How are the coordinates read?

coordinates. They are read from horizontal, coronal, and sagittal planes.

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75. When preparing to obtain cerebrospinal fluid in the rabbit, which area of the skull is shaved? From which ventricle is CSF removed? How much CSF can be safely removed in the rabbit?

occipital. 4th Ventricle (3rd ventricle for chronic catheterization). 1.5-2 ml

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76. Define the following transplantation terms: autograft, allograft, xenograft.

Autograft – a graft of tissue from one site to another on the same individual. Allograft – graft between genetically dissimilar animals of the same species. Xenograft – graft between animals of different species.

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77. During tissue culture, cell viability is determined using ------ staining.

Trypan blue staining.

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78. After subcutaneous tumor transplantation, why should the tumor not be palpated?

because of the danger of fatal hemorrhage from highly vascular tissues.

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79. What do the following imaging acronyms stand for: CAT, MRI, PET, SPECT?

CAT – computerized axial tomography
MRI – magnetic resonance imaging
PET – positron emission tomography
SPECT – single-photon emission computed tomography.

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80. Ultrasonography uses the ---- produced by high frequency sound to create visual images of internal structures.

echo

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81. ------- combines a physiologic sensor with a radio-transmitter to allow acquisition of data from a freely moving animal without need for any type of restraint.

Radiotelemetry