BC#5 - Week of 10718Comm Man #7&8, FFP Lofts, , AUC# 205,230,231,240,253&254, Dunn –Chap. 8, PAIDs 6-70, 6-72, 1-77, 1-08 & 208, BISP – Res Guide – Ref. 2.1, 2.1A, 2.2 BC Barvels Flashcards Preview

BC Class Fall 2018 > BC#5 - Week of 10718Comm Man #7&8, FFP Lofts, , AUC# 205,230,231,240,253&254, Dunn –Chap. 8, PAIDs 6-70, 6-72, 1-77, 1-08 & 208, BISP – Res Guide – Ref. 2.1, 2.1A, 2.2 BC Barvels > Flashcards

Flashcards in BC#5 - Week of 10718Comm Man #7&8, FFP Lofts, , AUC# 205,230,231,240,253&254, Dunn –Chap. 8, PAIDs 6-70, 6-72, 1-77, 1-08 & 208, BISP – Res Guide – Ref. 2.1, 2.1A, 2.2 BC Barvels Deck (67)
Loading flashcards...
1

1) As a Battalion Chief, it is important to be aware of the resources you may require at various incidents. Of the following choices, which contains incorrect information? (Comm 7.1)A) An Incident Commander considering calling an additional Engine and Truck after a 7-5 signal must be aware of, and take into account, "Reflex Time". This refers to the elapsed time from the recognition of the need for additional units to the time the requested units arrive on the scene and are in position to operate.B) Special calls for an additional Engine and Ladder after a Signal 7-5 are acceptable when the Incident Commander determines that additional units will be needed for fire duty and/or relief purposes.C) In all cases, once one additional Engine has been special called above a Signal 7-5, any additional Engine Companies must be obtained through the transmission of a higher alarm.D) Additional Ladder Companies may be special called for any situation status without the transmission of a higher alarm.

1. C

Once one additional Engine has been special called above a Signal 7-5, and the status of the fire remains Doubtful, any additional Engine companies must be obtained through the transmission of a higher alarm. Once the fire is placed Probably Will Hold or Under Control, additional engine companies may be special called for relief purposes only without the transmission of a higher alarm.

2

2) As the Incident Commander of numerous FDNY operations, one of your responsibilities includes knowing the status of units under your command. Of the following, which choice contains incorrect information? (Comm 7.1)A) When dispatched to an incident with only two Engine Companies and two Ladder Companies, if you transmit a second alarm on arrival, the dispatcher shall provide the missing first alarm Engine and Ladder companies in addition to the companies required for the second alarm.B) When using "All Hands" at an operation and you immediately request an additional Engine and Ladder, if you later order a second alarm you will receive the entire second alarm assignment in addition to your full first alarm assignment and the additional Engine and Ladder already special called.C) When you report a fire "Under Control", following your preliminary report at an "All Hands" fire, the dispatcher will inquire whether the additional units are required. If not, those units still en-route will be directed by the dispatcher to return to quarters, other duties, or to another response.D) As the Incident Commander of a Signal 7-5 “Doubtful” structural fire, you shall not release any units until the fire has been placed “Probably Will Hold” or “Under Control.”

2. B If the Incident Commander has special called units above the normal assignment, and subsequently orders the next higher alarm, only the balance of the greater alarm assignment will be assigned.EXAMPLE: The IC reports using "All Hands" and requests an additional Engine and Ladder. If the IC later orders a second alarm, only the balance of the second alarm assignment will be assigned.

3

3) A Battalion Chief is expected to fulfill many roles at FDNY operations, depending on the incident type and when he/she is assigned. Of the following, which role is explained incorrectly? (Comm 7 p 6, 22)A) The Air Support Plan provides for the capability of placing a Battalion Chief (Air Recon Chief) in position above an operation for observation of conditions not readily observable from the ground. The Air Support Plan will be activated automatically upon transmission of a doubtful second alarm for a fire associated with a 10-76 or 10-77, upon transmission of a 10-60 code 1, and all doubtful third alarms.B) The Resources Unit Leader is responsible for maintaining status information of all resources allocated to the incident and is assigned on the transmission of a 10-60 and all second alarm and greater incidents.C) The Safety Battalion is assigned on all 2nd alarms, except for brush fires, and shall not be used for firefighting purposes.D) A Battalion Chief shall be special called by the dispatcher to perform the duties of “Safety Officer” at all second and greater alarms. This officer’s vital function is to assist the Incident Commander in minimizing the threat of death or injury to members and shall not be used for firefighting purposes prior to the arrival of the Safety Battalion unless the Incident Commander deems it necessary.

3. D Safety Battalion Responses and duties:o All 2nd alarms (except for brush fires; response required on 3rd alarm) to assist the Incident Commander with all safety aspects of an operation. The Safety Chiefshall not be used for firefighting purposes.

4

4) The Department has many special resources that an Incident Commander may find to be beneficial at an operation. Of the following, which resources description is listed incorrectly? (Comm 7 p 9, 10)A) The Department’s Collapse PODS (Portable-On Demand Storage) Containers which contain shoring equipment may be used at large scale emergencies. Responses for these units will be by order of a Battalion Chief or higher rank only.B) Collapse Rescue Units are a 2nd piece of apparatus assigned to all Rescue Companies. These units respond with their associated Rescue Company as part of a Rescue Task Force. An Incident Commander may special call these units to an operation where a shoring operation may be needed.C) A Communications Unit will be assigned to respond to all 3rd Alarms, 10-60, 10-66, 10-75 for below grade incidents in facilities other than buildings, 10-76, 10-77 2nd Alarms, and when in the opinion of the Incident Commander they would be required. The IC should ensure from the Dispatcher the response of a Communications Unit to work in conjunction with the Field Communications Unit, if possible, when an auxiliary communications system (ARCS) is utilized.D) The Firefighter Assist and Search Team (FAST Unit) shall be assigned on transmission of Signals 10-60, 10-66, 10-75, 10-76 and 10-77. Once assigned and designated, the FAST Unit shall remain designated as such, unless otherwise directed by the Incident Commander.

4. AResponses for these units will be by order of a Command Chief only.

5

5) With many units at an Incident Commander’s disposal, a knowledgeable Chief should know all of the following statements to be correct with the exception of? (Comm 7 p 13, 21, 23, 7.8)A) When assigned on the initial alarm for manhole fires, FireIce units shall respond with their associated apparatus which carries the product and equipment. These units may also be special called by the IC.B) Unless otherwise ordered, the responding Recuperation and Care (RAC) Unit shall not be directed to return to quarters on receipt of "Probably Will Hold" or "Under Control" from the Incident Commander.C) Unless otherwise ordered, responding Satellite Water System Units shall not be directed to return to quarters on receipt of "Probably Will Hold," or "Under Control" from the Incident Commander.D) Since the Fire Department Operations Center (FDOC) automatically requests the response of a NYC Department of Buildings representative when Fire Department operations involve a building collapse, the Incident Commander should notify the dispatcher when the assistance of that agency is NOT required.

5. CUnless otherwise ordered, responding Satellite Water System Units shall be directed to return to quarters on receipt of "Probably Will Hold," or "Under Control" from the Incident Commander.

6

6) Appropriate transmissions and incident reporting are an important responsibility of the Incident Commander. Of the following choices, which contains incorrect information? (Comm 8.2.5, 8.2.6)A) The name or unit number of a member with a minor injury may be transmitted over the Department radio after requesting "Mixer off."B) Initial notification of a fatality or serious injury to an on-duty member shall be made to the dispatcher via a "Mixer off" message and shall not include the name or unit number of the fatally or seriously injured member.C) The initial transmission to the dispatcher of a fatality or serious injury to an on-duty member over the Department Radio shall be followed immediately by a telephone notification with full particulars. As soon as possible thereafter, particulars shall also be telephoned to the Fire Department Operation Center (FDOC.)D) For an alarm system activation resulting from a utility power fluctuation, a 10-35 Code 4 shall be transmitted and a NYFIRS report must be completed setting forth the cause of the unnecessary alarm and the relevant particulars.

6. D10-35 Unwarranted or Unnecessary Alarm System ActivationAny alarm system activation that is unwarranted or unnecessary, excluding a sprinkler system alarm (use 10-34 Code 1, 2 or 3) or an alarm system activationresulting from a utility power fluctuation (use 10-40 Code 2).

7

7) An experienced Battalion Chief should be familiar with established safety requirements when supervising communications. Of the following choices, which one contains incorrect information? (Comm 8.4.5, 8.4.6)A) Handie-Talkies, cell phones and Marine radios used 175 feet from vehicles transporting explosives, explosive magazines, or areas where blasting operations are in progress is acceptable.B) Apparatus and Post radios used 350 feet from vehicles transporting explosives, explosive magazines, or areas where blasting operations are in progress is acceptable.C) Handie-Talkies used in a building in which police personnel are searching for an explosive device is unacceptable.D) Apparatus radios are protected from the occurrence of a "stuck button". If the transmitting button on the apparatus radio is depressed for longer than one minute, an audible signal will alert the user that the transmission has been automatically interrupted.

7. A8.4.5 Handie-Talkies and cell phones shall not be used within 150 feet of vehicles transporting explosives, explosive magazines, or areas where blasting operationsare in progress. Apparatus, Post and Marine radios shall not be operated within 300 feet of such areas. Officers of all units shall familiarize themselves with locations where explosives are being transported, stored, or used within their administrative district and response areas.Units responding to emergencies for reported explosive devices shall follow the distance guidelines stated above. In addition, Handie-Talkies shall not be operatedin a building in which police personnel are searching for an explosive device.

8

8) When encountering an unwarranted or unnecessary alarm system activation, it is important for the Incident Commander to transmit the appropriate code. Of the following, which would be considered correct? (Comm 8 p 10)A) 10-35 Code 1 - low battery condition.B) 10-35 Code 2 - unnecessary activation caused by alarm system testing or servicing.C) 10-35 Code 4 - unnecessary alarm caused by construction activities.D) 10-35 Code 3 - unnecessary alarm caused by ordinary household activities (i.e. toast, steam, aerosol spray).

8. DCodes 1-4 - Unnecessary alarm.Alarm device, equipment or system operating properly but unnecessarily activated by lack of due care. DO NOT use this code when there is a fire or othercondition warranting an emergency response.Code 1: Unnecessary alarm caused by alarm system testing or servicing.Code 2: Unnecessary alarm caused by construction activities.Code 3: Unnecessary alarm caused by ordinary household activities(toast, steam, aerosol spray).Code 4: Unnecessary alarm caused by other known cause.(e.g., alarms resulting from cigarette smoking in unauthorized areas). When this code is used, a NYFIRS report must be completed setting forth the cause of the unnecessary alarm and the relevant particulars.

9

9) Battalion Chiefs should know when a Fire Marshal investigation is required. Of the following choices, which code transmission is incorrect? (Comm 8 p 12)A) Transmit a 10-41 Code 1 when a Fire Marshal investigation is required for a structure (commercial, residential, public), or vehicle (car, bus or train) which is occupied at the time of the fire.B) Transmit a 10-41 Code 2 when a Fire Marshal investigation is required for a structure (commercial, residential, public), normally occupied which is unoccupied at the time of the fire.C) Transmit a 10-41 Code 4 when a Fire Marshal investigation is required for fire in a vacant apartment in an occupied building.D) Transmit a 10-41 Code 3 for a vehicle, (car, bus or train) with or without plates, which is unoccupied at the time of the fire.

9. CCode 4: Vacant Structure, or Structures not intended for Dwelling Purposes.Examples include, but are not limited to the following:Vacant buildings, buildings under construction/demolition, detached garages, sheds or similar structures.Note: If any of the above are occupied at the time of the fire, transmit Code 1.

10

10) Occasionally, an Incident Commander may need to transmit a 10-41 Code 4. In which choice below would this transmission be incorrect? (Comm 8 p 12)A) Fire in a completely vacant building.B) Fire in an unoccupied building under construction/demolition.C) Fire in a shed where one person who was fixing his lawnmower was found unconscious.D) Fire in an unoccupied, detached garage.

10. CCode 4: Vacant Structure, or Structures not intended for Dwelling Purposes.Examples include, but are not limited to the following:Vacant buildings, buildings under construction/demolition, detached garages, sheds or similar structures.Note: If any of the above are occupied at the time of the fire, transmit Code 1.

11

11) All Battalion Chiefs should be familiar with the proper procedures of appropriately transmitting signal 10-45. Each of the following choices contains correct information except? (Comm 8 p 13)A) Signal 10-45 shall be transmitted upon the discovery of a fatality inside of a completely burned vehicle during a vehicle fire operation.B) When receiving notification of a 10-45 at a fire operation, the Incident Commander shall have the 10-45 signal transmitted over the Department radio as soon as possible.C) Signal 10-45 shall be transmitted upon the discovery of a person who received chemical burns on a CFRD response.D) At a fire operation, the IC shall confirm that the number of patients and/or fatalities match the number of 10-45s transmitted. Once the status and number of fatalities and patients has been confirmed, the IC shall transmit the appropriate codes for each 10-45 transmitted, given to him/her by the Medical Group Supervisor or Branch Director.

11. CAt the scene of fire operations, including vehicle fires, the signal 10-45 shall be transmitted upon the discovery of any fatality or injured civilians as a result of the fire operation. The Incident Commander shall then have this information transmitted over the Department radio as soon as possible.

12

12) The Bureau of EMS color tags their patients for treatment. After consultation with the Medical Group Supervisor at an “All Hands” fire where four victims were recovered, she tells you EMS designated a total of one red tag, one orange tag and two yellow tags. You would be correct to make which transmission? (Comm 8 p 13)A) “We have one 10-45 Code 1 and three 10-45 Code 3s.”B) “We have one 10-45 Code 2 and three 10-45 Code 3s.”C) “We have two 10-45 Code 2s and two 10-45 Code 3s.”D) “We have one 10-45 Code 1 and three 10-45 Code 2s.”

12. BPatient Condition Color Tag Code TransmissionDeceased Black Code 1Life Threatening Injury Red/ Code 2Non-Life Threatening Injury Orange/Yellow Code 3Non-Serious Injury/Ambulatory Green Code 4

13

13) The Incident Commander has a number of decisions to make immediately upon arrival at an incident. One of these decisions is the number and type of units required. Of the following, which choice contains incorrect information? (Comm 8 p 14, 15, 18, 22)A) Transmit a 10-60 for a collapse of a private dwelling.B) Transmit a 10-60 for a derailment of a subway car.C) A Victim Removal Group is defined as 3 Engines, 2 Ladders and 1 Battalion Chief whose primary duty is the removal of victims via skeds, stokes, etc. The IC may choose to utilize these companies as individual resources.D) A 10-75 transmitted for incidents below grade in buildings and subways shall require the response of a Communications Unit.

13. DNote: 10-75 transmitted for incidents below grade in facilities other than buildings (e.g. subway, tunnels, terminals, etc.) shall require the response of a Communications Unit.

14

14) Two recently promoted Battalion Chiefs were discussing the 10-66 signal. One made an incorrect comment found in which choice? (Comm 8 p 17)A) Transmission of signal 10-66 will automatically cause the response of the next higher full alarm assignment, and response of all of its associated resources.B) Two Battalion Chiefs will be assigned on the 10-66 in addition to those assigned as part of the extra alarm; the first Battalion Chief shall be designated as the FAST Group Supervisor and the second Battalion Chief shall be designated as the Firefighter Locator OfficerC) Acting Battalion Chiefs shall not be assigned to respond as a FAST Group Supervisor but may fill the role of FF Locator Officer.D) A “Rescue Task Force” includes 1 Rescue Company, 1 Collapse Rescue, 1 Squad Company with the 2nd Piece, 1 Haz Tac Officer, 1 Rescue Paramedic Unit and 1 SOC Support Ladder. When a Collapse Rescue is transported by a SSL, no additional SSL is required.

14. CNote: These positions may already be filled by on-scene Chief Officers, in which case the IC may re-designate these additional BCs. Acting Battalion Chiefs shallnot be assigned to respond as a FAST Group Supervisor or FF Locator Officer.

15

1) Two Battalion Chiefs were having a friendly conversation about loft buildings found in NYC. The only correct statement made during this conversation can be found in which choice? (FFP Lofts 1.1, 2.2, 2.3)A) Lofts can be Class 1, 2, 4 or 6 constructions.B) Cast-Iron lofts are considered the least common type.C) Fireproof lofts are considered the newest and most common type.D) Fireproof lofts are typically located adjacent to waterways and rail lines.

1. CLofts can be Class 1, 2, 3 or 6 constructions.2.2 Mill (Heavy Timber) constructed lofts are the least common type. Age and lack of maintenance have resulted in many of these buildings being demolished. Originally built for manufacturing and warehousing, they are typically located adjacent to waterways and rail lines. Some areas where they can be found include Chelsea, Downtown Brooklyn, Maspeth, and Hunts Point.2.3 During the 1880s, steel became more accessible. The use of steel columns, girders, and beams in conjunction with reinforced concrete introduced true fireproof construction into loft buildings. Fireproof lofts are the newest and most common type. Many of thesebuildings are well maintained and have not been altered. Fireproof lofts are found in many areas of the NYC including Bush Terminal, DUMBO (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass) Long Island City, South Bronx, and Midtown West (Hell’s Kitchen).

16

2) Which choice below contains all correct statements regarding Older Cast-Iron Lofts, built from the 1840s to the 1870s? (FFP Lofts 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.4)1. They are a maximum of 7 to 8 stories in height, having front and rear exterior walls of brick, stone or iron and side exterior walls of brick construction.2. Frontage is usually 25 feet (indicating the presence of interior columns) with depths reaching 200 feet and frontage on only one street.3. Larger dimensional buildings can be irregularly (L-shaped) constructed with frontage on two adjacent streets or 200 feet deep, with frontage on 2 parallel streets.4. Buildings with larger frontages (up to 50 feet) have wider windows and entranceways with cast-iron columns and arches to support heavy timber or iron girders.5. Many of these structures have first floor extensions protruding up to 10 feet beyond the upper floors of the building in the rear.6. These structures have two enclosed wooden stairs, often in a scissor configuration. Doors leading to these stairways can also be made of wood.7. Interior stairs leading to the cellar may be remote from the main interior stairway and of open, wooden construction.8. Fire escapes can be found on the front, rear, as well as the sides (corner buildings).A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5B) 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8C) 1, 2, 5, 8D) 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8

2. D4.1.1 Maximum 7 to 8 stories in height having front and rear exterior walls of brick, stone or iron (Photo 1). Side exterior walls are of brick construction. Frontage is usually 25 feet (indicating no interior columns) with depths reaching 90 feet and frontage on only one street. Many of these structures have first floor extensions protruding up to 10 feet beyond the upper floors of the building in the rear.4.1.2 Larger dimensional buildings can be irregularly (L-shaped) constructed (Photo 2) with frontage on two adjacent streets or 200 feet deep, with frontage on 2 parallel streets. Buildings with larger frontages (up to 50 feet) have wider windows and entrance ways with cast-iron columns and arches to support heavy timber or iron girders. These girders may be supported by the rear wall and on flanges at the back of the cast-iron front wall. Ornamental cast-iron plating may also be found bolted into front facade masonry.4.1.4 The roof is built flat using wood rafters. Some top floors have dropped-ceilings below the roof creating cockloft areas. These structures have one unenclosed wooden stair, often winding around the elevator shaft or one straight run stair. Doors leading to the stairway can also be made of wood. Interior stairs leading to the cellar may be remote from the main interior stairway and of open, wooden construction. Fire escapes can be found on the front, rear, as well as the sides (corner buildings).

17

3) All of the following choices contain correct information regarding Newer Cast-Iron Lofts, built from the 1880s to 1901, except? (FFP Lofts 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.2.3)A) These type lofts have exterior walls made from brick, stone, framed wrought iron/cast-iron or steel. They may be built higher (8-12 stories) and wider than Older Cast-iron lofts with common dimensions being 50 feet wide by 90 feet deep.B) There are also larger irregularly (P-shaped) constructed buildings as well as buildings with conventional dimensions having up to 100 feet frontages and 200 feet depths.C) All exterior walls have a minimum 3 hour fire resistive rating. Various types of fire escapes can be located on all exterior sides of the building.D) Generally, there is only one interior stairway located inside enclosed walls having a 3 hour fire resistive rating.

3. C4.2.2 Interior structural elements consist of protected cast-iron columns and wrought iron girders and beams supporting masonry or wooden floors. Generally, there are two interior stairways located inside enclosed walls having a 2 hour fire resistive rating.

18

5) Of the following choices, which contains incorrect information regarding Fireproof Lofts? (FFP Lofts 4.4.1, 4.4.3)A) These buildings range from 10-15 stories in height.B) Rectangular dimensions are usually between 50 to 100 feet or more in width and from 75 to 200 feet deep. Some, however, can span an entire block.C) Interior stairs are open, except in fire towers which are provided in all Fireproof Lofts.D) They may have exterior screened stairways leading either to the front or rear of the building.

5. C5) Of the following choices, which contains incorrect information regarding Fireproof Lofts? (FFP Lofts 4.4.1, 4.4.3)A) These buildings range from 10-15 stories in height.B) Rectangular dimensions are usually between 50 to 100 feet or more in width and from 75 to 200 feet deep. Some, however, can span an entire block.C) Interior stairs are open, except in fire towers which are provided in all Fireproof Lofts.D) They may have exterior screened stairways leading either to the front or rear of the building.

19

6) Older Cast-Iron Lofts may have sidewalk vaults, an unusual feature members may not be familiar with. Which choice below contains incorrect information regarding these sidewalk vaults? (FFP Lofts 5.1.1)A) They are three-wall enclosures located under the front sidewalk. The vault can extend downward to all sub-levels of the building and may extend the full width of the sidewalk.B) An indicator of a “full” vault is the absence of granite stone covering the sidewalk to the curb line.C) The ceiling of the vault was originally constructed of a wrought-iron or cast-iron frame with small segmented fixed glass orbs (deadlights) to allow natural light to enter. The frame can span the entire width of the building and extend from the building wall to the street.D) Today, the glass (deadlights) may have been totally or partially replaced with diamond plate, cubed-glass, granite, stone, or concrete.

6. BAn indicator of a “full” vault is a large piece ofgranite stone covering the sidewalk to the curb line.

20

7) All of the following choices contain correct information regarding elevators found in Older Cast-Iron Lofts except? (FFP Lofts 5.1.2)A) Passenger and freight elevators are normally located within the area of the front wall. They may be found on either side or in the middle of the building.B) If a loading dock is present, freight elevators may be found 20 feet inward from the front of the building. In residential conversions, freight elevators may have been removed to accommodate additional living space on each floor for the tenants.C) Frequently, freight elevator shafts were built using terra cotta tile which can be readily breached if needed.D) Freight elevators will often be installed with Firemen Service capabilities and may be initially used during fire operations when passenger elevators are not present.

7. DFreight elevators will not be installed with Firemen Service capabilities. They are not initially used during fire operations due to their proximity to rubbish removal areas which are commonly fire origin locations. After evaluation and approval for use by the Incident Commander (IC), these elevators will allow for greater movement of members, tools and equipment due to their large size.

21

8) While attending drill at the quarters of a local fire unit, you observe two members discussing problems presented by elevator shafts in Older Cast-Iron Lofts. Which comment made was correct? (FFP Lofts 5.1.2)A) When elevator shafts face the street, any window serving the shaft is required to display a “SHAFTWAY” sign across the inner portion of the window that is clearly visible from the street.B) Avoid placing aerial or portable ladders to shaft windows or operating streams into them unless visible fire is extending up the shaft.C) Shaft windows may have boards across their upper portion, placed to serve as a warning of an open shaft. These windows are easily differentiated from the other windows in the front facade.D) In loft buildings, elevator doors will always slide into the Shaftway and are easily distinguished from apartment doors.

8. BWhen elevator shafts face the street, any window serving the shaft is required to display a “SHAFTWAY” sign across the outer portion of the window that is clearly visible from the street (Photo 10).Shaft windows may have boards across their lowerportion, placed to serve as a warning of an open shaft. These windows will look identical to the other windows in the front façade.In many loft buildings, elevators doors can look like apartment entrance doors. Often, elevator doors do not slide into the shaftway but swing out onto the loft floor as two separate doors or as a single-hinged door.

22

9) FF Smith made a number of statements regarding features of Older Cast-Iron Lofts but was incorrect in one. Indicate the incorrect statement. (FFP Lofts 5.1.3, 5.1.5, 5.1.8, 5.1.9)A) A good place to locate an enclosed air / light shaft is inside the first floor bathroom.B) Some sub-level openings provide direct access to the lone below grade level of the building which can be more than 20 feet below the sidewalk.C) Gravity tank structural supports rust and rot away particularly at the point where I-beams penetrate walls.D) Iron Window Shutters were generally installed on the front and side walls of lofts.

9. DIron Window Shutters - generally installed on the rear and side walls of lofts. They were mandated by law on loft buildings with plain glass windows situated less than 30 feet horizontally from another building or less than 50 feet vertically from the roof of an adjoining building. Originally, 6 inch round openings were cut into every third vertical row of iron shutters as well as shutters protecting windows on fire escapes, to assist firefighters in accessing the steel hook and catch to facilitate entry into the building. Today, these 6 inch openings are commonly covered over with steel plating (Photo 13). Iron windows shutters may have been completely removed during residential conversions or welded/bolted closed for security reasons in other type occupancies.

23

10) BC Green was questioning his officers about cast iron columns found in Older Cast-Iron Lofts. One officer made an incorrect comment which can be found in which choice? (FFP Lofts 5.1.10 C - F)A) Cast-iron columns are not designed to withstand an eccentric load.B) Even when properly cast, these structural members cannot withstand a great deal of thermal stress; cast-iron columns exposed to fire will shatter when cooled by a hoseline.C) When subjected to the heat from a fire for long periods of time, cast-iron columns can fracture and fail.D) At 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit, cast-iron loses 58% of its original strength. The strength lost is cumulative and is never regained.

10. BE. When properly cast, these structural members will withstand a great deal of thermal stress. The statement that all cast-iron columns exposed to fire will shatter when cooled by a hoseline is a myth. However, if an improperly cast column is cooled by a hoseline it can contract disproportionately leading to potential failure.

24

11) DC Jones was lecturing an audience on some of the challenging features of Older Cast-Iron Lofts. Unfortunately, DC Jones was incorrect in which statement? (FFP Lofts 5.1.12, 5.1.13, 5.1.23)A) Loft buildings 100 feet in depth will have limited rear access and maneuverability for firefighting. Rear courtyards, some with fire escape access 3 stories below grade, add to the operational complexity.B) Lightweight sheds built to enclose depressed courtyards and provide natural light below grade were constructed using wire-glass on the roof. These glass roofs may be tarred or planked over for security reasons, creating what appears to be and mistaken for a weight-bearing roof. These shed roofs shall never be vented or removed.C) In some cases, straight run stairs do not go all the way to the rear wall. They terminate at an upper level floor where a more common return-type stair begins. This is the result of add-on floor construction.D) Quoins were used by architects to give the impression of strength and firmness to the outline of the building. They provide firefighters with a visual contrasting feature to neighboring buildings on Exposures 2 and 4, allowing members to accurately discern the width of the fire building.

11. BThese shed roofs, once removed, may provide effectiveventilation points for sub-level and first floor fires.

25

12) Many of the construction features found in Older Cast-Iron Lofts can also be found in Newer Cast Iron Lofts. Of the features list below that are unique to Newer Cast-Iron buildings, which is listed incorrectly? (FFP Lofts 5.2.2-5.2.3)A) Segmental arch floors should not be breached unless protected by a charged hoseline.B) Wrought-Iron Girders/Beams/Lintels were used and unlike cast-iron, which is strong in compression but weak in tension, wrought-iron is equally strong in compression and tension.C) Like steel and cast-iron, wrought-iron when heated in a fire situation will elongate and lose strength. Both of these characteristics can lead to a collapse.D) Attempts to protect interior cast-iron columns against the effects of fire were through the use of a double shell. Exterior facade columns were not required to be protected.

12. ASegmental arch floors should not be breached for fear of causing a general floor collapse spanning a wide area

26

13) Which construction feature found in Mill Lofts is described incorrectly? (FFP Lofts 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.3.8)A) Wooden floor beams are fixed into cast-iron wall plates which are designed to allow the beams to collapse in a fire without pulling down the walls. Cast-iron wall plates tend to collect moisture leading to the deterioration of the wooden beams over a long period of time.B) Square columns (20% stronger than round ones of equal dimension) are used on the lower floors while round columns are reserved for the upper floors. Column dimensions decrease as load carrying requirements diminish at the upper floors of the building.C) A general rule of thumb for the run of the original hardwood finished flooring is from side to side of the building. A firefighter lost on a floor can utilize this knowledge to find a means of egress in the exposure 2 or 4 sides of the building.D) Steel Tension Cables/Rods have reinforcing plates, commonly in the shape of a star, which can be seen on exterior walls of the building. When installed during construction by design, this may be indicated by a uniform pattern and when put in post-construction due to age and deterioration; this may be indicated by an irregular pattern.

13. CA general rule of thumb for the run of original hardwood finished flooring is from the front to rear of the building. A firefighter lost on a floor can utilize this knowledge to find a front or rear means of egress.

27

14) BC Charles was discussing the features of Fireproof Lofts with members at the kitchen table. He was correct in all comments except in which choice? (FFP Lofts 5.4.1, 5.4.3, 5.4.9, 5.4.12)A) Flat Slab “Mushroom” Floors are not unique to Fireproof loft buildings; they may be found in Cast-Iron and Mill Lofts as well. Often a portion of the floor slab at the column base is made thicker to enhance the load-bearing capacity of the column.B) Casement Windows are constructed of multiple glass panes placed in a wrought-iron or light steel frame. They provide an excellent point for horizontal ventilation. Access, egress, and the removal of victims will prove difficult, however, since they tilt open horizontally.C) Skywalks may interconnect adjoining buildings at one or more floors above ground level. Many are sealed closed at both ends or structurally unsound, negating their use for occupant egress and firefightingD) Loading Docks can provide firefighting units with excellent access points into the building. These openings are often protected by metal roll-down gates when not being utilized and during non-operational hours.

14. AOften a portion of the floor slab at the column capital is made thicker

28

15) Engine operations in Cast-Iron and Mill Lofts can be challenging. A capable and determined Incident Commander should know which choice below to be incorrect? (FFP Lofts 6.1.5, 6.1.8, 6.2.1 B, 6.2.3 B)A) Large fires may require two lines on the fire floor and the second hoseline is usually stretched by way of the interior stairs to the same floor as the first line for augmentation. If not needed on the original fire floor, the second line is then advanced to the floor above once the officer supervising the second hoseline is assured the first hoseline is making progress and is capable of handling the fire floor.B) Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently and units should not hesitate to cool these floors by operating the hoseline stream directly overhead.C) For a cellar/sub-cellar fire, the second engine company shall assist the first engine with the initial hoseline. In a building protected by a sprinkler system servicing the fire area, if the first engine has not supplied it, a supply line shall be stretched to feed this system.D) For upper floor fires in these buildings consider utilization of the high-rise nozzle (HRN).

15. B6.1.8 Segmental arch floors exposed to fire can spall violently and possibly fail when struck by water from a hoseline below. Use the reach of the stream and do not operate the stream directly overhead.

29

16) The Incident Commander should be aware of the location and activities of Ladder Companies at Cast-Iron and Mill Loft fires. At these operations, all of the following are correct with the exception of which choice? (FFP Lofts 7.1.1, 7.1.4, 7.1.16, 7.1.19)A) The first and second ladder companies shall always team up and be responsible for ventilation, entry and search (VES) of the fire floor. Later arriving units will conduct VES on the floors above.B) Improper apparatus positioning and tormentor placement have collapsed vaulted sidewalks. Vehicles falling through vaulted sidewalks could strike structural elements in sub-level areas leading to a building collapse.C) Indiscriminate overhauling on the underside of segmental arch floors can cause a localized collapse.D) Fire-vented windows where wind is blowing the fire back into the fire occupancy may require the deployment of KO curtain(s) and/or the fire window blanket.

16. A7.1.1 The first ladder company is responsible for ventilation, entry and search (VES) of the fire floor. The second ladder company is responsible for VES of the floors above.

30

17) An Incident Commander may have many concerns at a fire in a loft building. Of the following choices, which contains incorrect information? (FFP 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 9.1.1)A) Large area lofts may require the utilization of the Post Radio.B) Rebreather Units may be required for extended, pre-fire control search operations over large floor areas and/or below grade levels.C) Examine adjoining buildings as fire and combustible gases can travel through crevices at beam ends seeping through brickwork.D) Wide-dimensional Cast-iron lofts having front and rear walls supporting girders pose catastrophic collapse potential should they be compromised.

17. B Rebreather Units may be required for extended, post fire control search operations over large floor areas and/or below grade levels.