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Flashcards in Becker - Module 7 Deck (26)
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Define common stock and list the basic properties

Common stock: Residual ownership interest

Basic rights include:
- voting rights
- dividend rights
- rights to share in distribution of assets if corporation is liquidated, after satisfaction of creditor and preferred stockholders' claims


List some common properties of preferred stock

- convertible, callable
- redeemable
- dividends can be cumulative and/or participating


Describe the adjustments of a quasi-reorganization

- Assets are restated at fair value (no increase in asset value is permitted, write-downs are charged directly to retained earnings)
- Liabilities are restated at present values
- Retained earnings brought to zero balance by closing additional paid-in capital or other capital accounts
- Remember to continue to show the date of the adjustment to retained earnings for 3-10 years, as this is a departure from cost principle
- No negative balance in any capital account


What are the two alternative methods of accounting for treasury stock?

Cost method: Unallocated reduction in stockholders' equity

Par value method: deducted from capital stock

Remember, no gains/losses are recognized on the income statement; income and retained earnings may never increase by the transaction; additional paid-in capital - treasury stock account used to record "gains" and absorb "losses"

Treasury stock is not an asset; cash and property dividends are not paid on treasury stock; stock dividends may be paid on treasury stock.


Summarize the cost method of accounting for treasury stock

- Recorded, carried, and reissued at reacquisition cost
- Any "gain" is credited to Paid-in Capital - Treasury Stock
- Any "loss" is charged against previous "gains," then retained earnings
- Reported as a deduction from total stockholders' equity


Summarize the par value method of accounting for treasury stock

- Recorded at par value with excess to Paid-in Capital - Treasury Stock or deducted from retained earnings after charged to any Paid-in Capital - Treasury Stock
- Reported as a deduction from capital stock


List the significant dates with respect to cash dividends

- Date of Declaration: becomes a liability and reduces retained earnings
- Date of Record: no journal entry, memorandum entry only
- Date of Payment: actually paid


List five types of dividends

1) Cash
2) Liquidating: return of investment
3) Property: FMV of assets given up, with gain/loss recognized
4) Scrip: promise to pay a dividend in future
5) Stock: results in capitalizing part of retained earnings, increasing legal capital. Remember, if 20-25%, record at par value.


What is the threshold for treating stock dividends as large vs. small stock dividends?

Small stock dividend: 20-25%

The treatment of stock dividends depends on the percentage of the dividend in proportion to the total shares outstanding prior to the declaration of the dividend


What is the accounting treatment of small stock dividends?

Fair value of additional shares issued at the date of declaration is transferred from retained earnings to capital stock and additional paid-in capital


What is the accounting treatment of large stock dividends?

Par value of additional shares issued is transferred from retained earnings to capital stock.


Identify the disclosure requirements about capital structure

- rights and privileges of various securities outstanding
- number of shares issued upon conversion, exercise, or satisfaction of required conditions during at least the most recent annual fiscal period and any subsequent interim period presented
- liquidation preference of preferred stock
- redemption requirements related to redeemable stock


Identify two types of stock options

1) Noncompensatory: Under US GAAP, substantially all full-time employees may participate; offered equally or as a percentage of salary; reasonable exercise period; and discount is no greater than that offered to stockholders.

2) Compensatory: Compensation cost is determined on the grant date, using an option pricing model

Note: Under IFRS, stock options are generally considered to be compensatory


Describe the computation and allocation of compensation expense under compensatory stock option plans

Compensation cost is based on the fair value of the equity instrument awarded, determined by an option pricing model. This cost is expensed and allocated over the service period.


Describe the accounting for unexercised, expiring stock options

Any balance in "additional paid-in capital - stock options" is reclassified to "additional paid-in capital - expired stock options." Previously recognized compensation expense is not adjusted.


What is the basic formula used for calculating EPS?

income available to common shareholders / weighted-average # of common shares outstanding


Compare basic and diluted EPS

Basic: simple capital structure (only common stock outstanding):
income available to common shareholders / weighted-average common shares outstanding

Diluted: complex capital structure:
income available to common shareholders assuming conversion of all dilutive securities / weighted-average common shares outstanding after conversion of all dilutive shares


Name the potentially dilutive securities or instruments

- stock options and warrants and their equivalents
- convertible securities (bonds or preferred stock)
- contracts that may be settled in stock or cash
- contingent issuable shares


What is the antidilution rule?

Any conversion, exercise, or contingent issuance that has an antidilutive effect (increases EPS or decreases loss per share) is not included in the calculation unless the shares have actually been converted, exercised, or satisfaction of the contingency met.

Each potential common share is considered separately in sequence from most to least dilutive, with in the money options and warrants generally included first.


List the reporting requirements for EPS

Face of income statement, with equal prominence for basic and diluted per-share amounts, for both income from continuing operations and net income.

Per-share amounts for discontinued operations and extraordinary items can be reported on the face of the income statement or in the notes to the financial statements.


What are the three sections of the statement of cash flows? What cash flows are included in each section?

- Operating activities - cash flows from income statement transactions and current assets/liabilities
- Investing activities - cash flows from noncurrent assets
- Financing activities - cash flows from debt and equity


Define cash equivalents

Cash equivalents: cash equivalents are highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible into cash with insignificant risk of changes in value.

Note: "Maturities of three months or less" is of original instrument or from purchase date of instrument.


Name the two methods of presentation of cash flows from operating activities. Which method is preferred?

- Direct and Indirect methods
- Direct method is preferred


If using the direct method of presenting cash flows from operating activities, what additional item needs to be included in the statement of cash flows under US GAAP?

A reconciliation of net income to net cash provided by operations needs to be provided by operations needs to be provided as a supplemental schedule (not required under IFRS)


Name the common adjustments made to cash flows from operating activities using the indirect method.

Current assets and liabilities
Losses and gains
Amortization and depreciation
Deferred items


Name the most common classes of cash receipts and disbursements included in cash flows from operating activities using the direct method.

- Cash received from customers
- Cash paid to suppliers and employees
- Interest received and paid
- Dividends received
- Purchases and sales of trading securities, if appropriate, based on the nature and purpose for which the securities were acquired
- Income taxes paid