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Flashcards in Beef Cattle Deck (35):
1

What are the 3 types of beef production?

1) cow-calf
2) cattle feeders/feedlots
3) purebred breeders

2

Cattle dependent on roughages (pasture, hay, and silage) on land unsuitable for crops that involve less labor and lower investment fall under which production type?

Cow-calf

3

Calves that are bought by the operator as yearlings, confined and fed on grain, grown and finished to market fall under which production type?

Cattle feeders/feedlots

4

High cost beef production with purebred stock, requiring knowledge and skill to maintain falls under what category?

Purebred breeders

5

What system is more suitable for farms that produce roughages with cattle that are NOT heavier?

Deferred finishing system

6

What type of conformation is important for beef cattle to have?

Rectangular-shaped

7

Beef cows are first bred at what age?

2 years

8

How often do beef cattle breed and when do they calve?

Once a year and calve in the spring

9

What is the goal calf weaning weight in beef herd production?

45-50% of cow weight

10

What is the goal average age at weaning for beef herd production?

150-180 days

11

When must a cow be bred to get 1 calf per year?

Within 80 days after calving

12

6 points of reference for BCS in beef cattle...

1) back
2) tail head
3) pins
4) hooks
5) ribs
6) brisket

13

BCS range for beef cattle

1-9

14

What BCS range is "ideal" in beef cattle?

5-7

15

Fall calving aims for breeding to occur around _______; where as Spring calving aims for breeding to occur around ________.

December; May

16

What percentage of total costs are attributed to feed costs in beef cows?

50-70%

17

In a spring calving system, what is the max BW loss aim for over enduring the winter?

<10% BW

18

T or F:
Calf creep-feeding is not advantageous for the adaptation of steers to feedlot finishing.

TRUE

When they get to the feedlot, they go from roughages (protozoa are adapted to the hay, etc.) to concentrate. The rumen environment has to change with the composition of feed; the rumen develops by EATING GRAIN.

19

What is calf creep feeding?

Providing extra feed like grain/ commercial feed mix to calves in addition to milk

20

In creep feeding, when will calves start eating grain? What about large amounts of grain?

3 wo;
8 wo

21

Future bulls used for service should be weaned around what age?

6 mo

22

Feedlot cattle have different nutritional needs according to:

Sex
Age

23

Bloat is also known as _______ _______.

What leads to the overproduction of gas, which causes the rumen to swell?

"Ruminal tympany"

Rapid fermentation* green legumes in large amounts, very fast

24

How can we use dry hay to prevent bloat?

Feed it before pasturing animals!

25

Panting, coughing, and breathing difficulties commonly seen in feedlot cattle can be symptoms of:

Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema

26

Associated to high altitudes, this condition manifests as swelling in the lower neck and enlargement of the heart...

Brisket Dz

27

Also known as "overeating dz", this is seen more in sheep but do affect cattle on high concentrate diets (feedlots) and is related to what bacterial toxins?

Enterotoxemia: Clostridium perfringens toxins

*can die in 24 hours

28

What toxicity is associated with the production of ergot type alkaloids, gangrene in the winter, and summer syndrome (inc body temp, rapid breathing, decreased production)?

Fescue

29

How can you "dilute" fescue ?

By planting clover or Bermuda grass

30

Diarrhea, stiff joints, appetite loss, abnormal bones and teeth may be a sign of this...

Fluorosis

31

Common in feedlot cattle, this condition is notorious for inflammation and swelling of the foot and connective tissue, caused by overeating concentrates (or standing too long in a stall), and can make the animal lame...

Founder

32

What symptoms are associated with Grass Tetany?

Stiffness, loss of appetite, frequent urination, convulsions
*most common in lactating animals

33

T or F:
Tx for Grass Tetany includes Mg-sulphate injection under the skin

True.

34

Brief pathogenesis of NP (nitrate poisoning)

High Nitrates in feed-->converted in rumen to nitrITES-->nitrites absorbed and interact w/Hb (methemoglobin) -->reduction in O2 carrying capacity to tissues

35

In PNW and Midwest regions, what is a way we can prevent NP?

Analyze feed and water