Flashcards in Dairy Cattle Deck (65):
How much on average do dairy cows produce daily?
How far into pregnancy do we "dry off" cows (after their first pregnancy)?
What happens to bull calves?
Usually sold as day-old calves
-->veal or dairy beef
Life span of a dairy cow?
20 years.. but usually only live to about 8.
Only profitable for about 3-5 lactations
Milk production is limited ____% by heredity and ____% by environment.
When do we want a heifer to have her first calf?
About her 2nd birthday
A cow in lactation and fed CORRECTLY will use what portion of feed for maintenance and what portion for milk production?
Half and half! (No pun intended...)
In a dairy cow and in the first 5 weeks of lactation, what happens to the fat content of milk?
It's going to decrease, but the volume produced will increase
In which part of the lactation curve do cows produce the highest amount of milk per day?
Most common roughages used as basis of rations on dairies?
Hay and silage!
What do dairy cattle have to be supplemented?
Acid detergent fibre
ADF= cellulose + lignin + ash
Neutral detergent fibre
NDF= hemicellulose* + cellulose + lignin + ash
DM = ?
(Dry weight/fresh weight) x 100
In dairy cattle, what percentage of DM should come from roughages?
The rest ->grain/concentrates
When poor quality hay is used, how do we compensate?
As a green chop crop matures, how do cows' eating behavior change?
They eat less of the green chop!! So they're taking in LESS energy!!!*
What cows would we feed straw to?
Dry cows or older heifers ; it's a cheap alternative and just adds fiber, keeping them from getting fat because it's low in nutrient contents
Limiting factor in milk production?
Oats have higher _____ content, but corn has higher _____ content.
Barley is higher in protein, but has the same overall energy value for dairy cattle, than what other grain?
Regarding protein supplements for dairy cows, what is more important?
What do fish meal, meat meal, and blood meal have in common as protein supplements in dairy cows?
They are NOT recommended
What should the Ca:P be for dairy cows?
1.2:1 to 2:1
What type of Nitrogen supplement is feed-grade urea?
A NON-protein nitrogen supplement
Adequate calcium sources for dairy cows mentioned in class are...
Limestone and dicalcium phosphate!
How much of milk is water?
What VFAs are desirable to be absorbed and used as energy sources?
Acetate, propionate, and butyrate
Advantages of rumen micro organisms
Digest/ferment hemicellulose and cellulose-->VFAs
Convert inexpensive non-protein N sources --> protein
Make their own B-vits (*remember Polioencephalomalacia*)
Break down some toxins
Normal pH in the rumen of a dairy cow?
Most adequate (high quality) forage for high-yield lactating dairy cows?
What will feeding high level of soluble carbohydrates to dairy cows lead to?
Acidosis, low milk fat
What level of soluble carbohydrates is recommended to feeding lactating dairy cows?
Most expensive part of the ration in feeding lactating dairy cows?
Grains and protein supplements
Dairy cow feeding can be divided into 4 different phases according to production status. Peak production occurs during phase ___, while highest DM matter intake occurs during phase ___.
Which phase in the lactating dairy cattle would have the highest needs in nutrients?
How is colostrum composition regulated?
Hormones (estrogen + progesterone)
How much colostrum does a dairy calf need?
2 gallons by 12 hours!
*1st gallon in the first 2 hours!
What is absolutely essential to avoid failure of passive transfer?!
What's the deal with artificial colostrum?
Nutritionally "correct" but it doesn't include Ig's
What are some signs of failure of passive transfer?
Discharge (eyes and nose),
What are the essential characteristics of milk replacer (fat and protein)?
When do we wean calves from artificial rearing?
*introduce palatable pellets gradually from week 1*
How long do heifers take to reach maturity and be serviced?
What is the basis of heifer nutrition?
Good quality forage (hay or pasture)
When using the Penn State Shaker box, the TMR (% of total weight) in the upper sieve is_____, whereas the TMR in the lower sieve is ____.
2-8 in upper;
10-20 in lower
When using the Penn State Shaker box, the TMR (% of total weight) in the Middle Sieve is _____, whereas the bottom pan is ____.
What is the BCS range for dairy cows?
*beef cattle is on a scale of 1-9*
What should the BCS of a dairy cow be in early lactation (end of phase 1)?
What should the BCS be for a dairy cow in mid lactation?
At the end of lactation, what should a dairy cow's BCS be?
3.5 (should be building reserves for the next lactation)
3 C's in Manurology?
Cattle feeding on TMR should have what color feces?
What does the Penn state shaker box tell us?
Proportions of how the TMR "shakes out" /related to fiber content and particle size
At mid-lactation, what should a dairy cow's BCS be?
Which side is the abomasum more likely to "float up" ?
How do we treat ketosis when cows are in this negative energy balance?
IV dextrose! Use the jugular vein!
How do we treat grass tetany?
Injectable Mg2+ sulphate under the skin
What will lactic acidosis lead to?
Which breed is notoriously susceptible to milk fever?
How do we treat milk fever?
IV calcium salts
In a drought, what metabolic disorder would we worry about most?
*remember: methemoglobin/brown blood because nitrite cannot be converted to ammonia- reacts with hemoglobin*
Which MD is related to low fiber and HIGH grain intake?
Which MD is caused by calcium deficiency?