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Year 2: Medical Ethics & Law > Beginning of Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Beginning of Life Deck (25)
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1
Q

What are some key ethical questions about the beginning of life?

A
  • Who should be parents
  • What is the remit of assisted reproduction
  • Should we choose our children
  • What is the status of the embryo and foetus
  • How important is maternal autonomy
2
Q

What are some who should be parents arguements?

A
  • Reproductive rights and responsibilities
  • Do clinicians have the right to assess potential parents
    • The fertility paradox: regulation, access and equity
  • Balance of autonomy of couple vs non malfeasance against future child
3
Q

What act protects the welfare of a potential child?

A

Human Fertilisation Embryology Act 1990

4
Q

How does the Human Fertilisation Embryology Act 1990 dictate who can get fertility treatment?

A
  • Treatment condition to welfare of child
  • Predicting welling being of future person
  • Similar criteria for fostering and adoption
  • In a set of circumstances, would it be better if the child was not born at all
5
Q

What are some assisted reproductive techniques?

A
  • Artificial insemination
  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF)
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • Preimplantation genetic testing
  • Gamete donation
  • Embryo donation
  • Surrogacy
6
Q

What are some opportunies of assisted reproduction?

A
  • Treatment infertility
  • Single and same sex parents
  • Prevention of inherited conditions
  • Fertility preservation
7
Q

What are some risks of assisted reproduction?

A
  • Sex selection
  • “Designer babies”
  • The reproductive industry
8
Q

What are some ethical questions around the treatment of infertility?

A
  • Who are infertile (from medical to social definitions)
  • Absolute verses relative barriers to conception
  • Who should be offered treatment
  • What treatment should be offered
  • How should this be funded
9
Q

What are some ethical issues of pre-implantation genetic testing?

A
  • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis
  • Screening for delayed onset conditions
  • Sex selection for family balancing
  • Seeking disability (deafness and achondroplasia)
  • Saviour siblings (for donating tissue)
  • Routine use of pre-implantation genetic testing
10
Q

What are some arguements about sex selection?

A
  • Has been used to select male embryos
  • Undermines the status of woman
  • Can lead to gender imbalance
  • Against the principle of unconditional parental love
  • Can be used for family balancing
11
Q

What are some arguements about social egg freezing?

A
  • Distinct from egg freezing for medical reasons
  • Age related reduction in ovarian reserve
  • Technology available
  • Provides greater reproductive control
  • Is it a medical need
  • Financial implications
12
Q

What are some arguements about the reproductive industry?

A
  • Commercialisation of reproduction
  • Reproductive tourism
  • Sourcing donor gametes
  • Global market in surrogate mothers
  • New opportunities for parenthood
  • Potential for exploitation
13
Q

Why are there ethical issues in regards to reproductive cloning?

A

The source of the cells which come from human embryos

14
Q

What is the moral status of the human embryo?

A
  • When does life begin
  • Mary Warnock and the HFE Act 1990
    • Embryos can be used for research up to 14 days after fertilisation]
    • This is because this is when the primitive streak forms and the CNS starts to develop
15
Q

When can embryos be used for research purposes up to?

A

14 days after fertilisation as the primitive streak develops then

16
Q

What are some arguements for abortion?

A
  • Acknowledge sexual and reproductive rights of woman
  • Unwanted pregnancy can harm physical and mental health
  • Wanted children thrive
  • Safe abortion saves lives globally
  • A potential human is not a child
17
Q

What are some arguements against abortion?

A
  • Denial of the rights of the embryo/foetus
  • Eliminating the potential for life
  • The availability of contraception as an alternative
18
Q

What pre-natal screening is offered in Scotland?

A

Triple test (AFP, Estrio, beta HCG) for chromosomal abnormalities

19
Q

What are some early pregnancy diagnostic tests?

A

Chorionic villus sampling

Amniocentesis

20
Q

What are risks of pre-natal diagnosis testing?

A

Risk of miscarriage

21
Q

What are arguements about pre-natal screening?

A
  • Which conditions should be tested for
  • Whose decision should it be
  • Linked to decision to terminate pregnancy
22
Q

What are arguements about maternal verses foetal interests in pregnancy?

A
  • Foetal surgery involving maternal risk
  • Delivery for foetal or maternal interest
  • Maternal autonomy and status of the foetus
  • Competence for informed consent
23
Q

What is the age of viability to give birth?

A

24 weeks, but serious risk of disability

24
Q

What are some ethical considerations about neonatal care?

A
  • Extreme prematurity and the right to be resuscitated
  • Resuscitation, who decides
25
Q

Summarise the ethical issues at the beginning of life?

A
  • Involves two/three individuals and one does not have a voice
  • Autonomy for who
  • Beneficence for who
  • Non-malfeasance for who
  • Unitarianism, individual versus collective good