Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (37)
What is a case control study?
It compares a group of people with a disease to a group of people without a disease; it looks at odds ratios -- Why do they have this disease? Erin Brokovich
What is a cohort study?
Compares a group with an exposure to a group without an exposure to see if it increases the likelihood of disease; looks at relative risk -- Will they get the disease?
What is a cross-sectional study?
Collects data from a group to assess frequency of disease at a point in time; DOES NOT establish causality but can show risk factors for disease
What is a twin concordance study?
Compares monozygotic to dizygotic twins to measure heritability
What is an adoption study?
Compares siblings raised by biological v. adoptive parents to measure heritability and environmental influence
What are the four phases of clinical trials?
Phase I - healthy volunteers (safety, toxicity, PK)
Phase II - patients with disease of interest (treatment efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects)
Phase III - large number of patients assigned to treatment or placebo
Phase IV - Postmarketing surveillance
What is sensitivity?
Probability that a positive test is positive in disease (SnOUT)
What is specificity?
Probability that a negative test is actually negative (SpIN)
What is the positive predictive value?
Probability that a person actually has a disease given a positive test result
What is the negative predictive value?
Probability that a negative test result indicates a true negative
What is the incidence rate?
It looks at the number of new cases in a time period out of the population at risk during the same time period
What is prevalence?
It looks at the number of existing cases out of the population at risk
What is the number needed to treat?
Number of patients that need to be treated for 1 patient to benefit
What is the number needed to harm?
Number of patients that need to be exposed to a risk factor for 1 to be harmed
What is absolute risk reduction?
Reduction in risk with treatment as compared to a control
If there is a high precision, there is a low ___
What is procedure bias?
When more attention is given to the treatment group
What is lead-time bias?
Early detection is confused with increased survival
What is the Hawthorne effect?
When a group changes its behavior because it knows it is being watched
In which skew is mean>median>mode?
In which skew is mean
What is a type I error?
Stating there IS a difference when none exists
What is a type II error?
Stating that there is NOT a difference when there is
If the CI includes zero...
there is no significant difference
If the CI includes one...
there still may not be a difference but there may
If the CIs do not overlap...
there is a difference
What is an ANOVA?
It looks at the difference between 3 or more groups
What is a chi-square?
Looks at difference between two or more percentages
What are the types of disease prevention?
Primary - prevent disease
Secondary - early detection
Tertiary - reduce disability form disease
When is parental consent not required?
Pregnancy, contraceptives, STDs, drug addiction, emergencies
What does APGAR mean?
appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
What is a "good" APGAR? "Bad"?
7 or greater is good, <4 resuscitate
What is low birth weight?
< 2500 g
T/F In the elderly, sexual interest decreases
What are the BMI scores?
<18.5 is underweight
18.5-24.9 is normal weight
25-29.9 is overweight
35 severe obesity
40 morbid obesity
45 super obesity
Beta waves have the ____ frequency and the ____ amplitude