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Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (37)
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1

What is a case control study?

It compares a group of people with a disease to a group of people without a disease; it looks at odds ratios -- Why do they have this disease? Erin Brokovich

2

What is a cohort study?

Compares a group with an exposure to a group without an exposure to see if it increases the likelihood of disease; looks at relative risk -- Will they get the disease?

3

What is a cross-sectional study?

Collects data from a group to assess frequency of disease at a point in time; DOES NOT establish causality but can show risk factors for disease

4

What is a twin concordance study?

Compares monozygotic to dizygotic twins to measure heritability

5

What is an adoption study?

Compares siblings raised by biological v. adoptive parents to measure heritability and environmental influence

6

What are the four phases of clinical trials?

Phase I - healthy volunteers (safety, toxicity, PK)
Phase II - patients with disease of interest (treatment efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects)
Phase III - large number of patients assigned to treatment or placebo
Phase IV - Postmarketing surveillance

7

What is sensitivity?

Probability that a positive test is positive in disease (SnOUT)

8

What is specificity?

Probability that a negative test is actually negative (SpIN)

9

What is the positive predictive value?

Probability that a person actually has a disease given a positive test result

10

What is the negative predictive value?

Probability that a negative test result indicates a true negative

11

What is the incidence rate?

It looks at the number of new cases in a time period out of the population at risk during the same time period

12

What is prevalence?

It looks at the number of existing cases out of the population at risk

13

What is the number needed to treat?

Number of patients that need to be treated for 1 patient to benefit

14

What is the number needed to harm?

Number of patients that need to be exposed to a risk factor for 1 to be harmed

15

What is absolute risk reduction?

Reduction in risk with treatment as compared to a control

16

If there is a high precision, there is a low ___

standard deviation

17

What is procedure bias?

When more attention is given to the treatment group

18

What is lead-time bias?

Early detection is confused with increased survival

19

What is the Hawthorne effect?

When a group changes its behavior because it knows it is being watched

20

In which skew is mean>median>mode?

Positive skew

21

In which skew is mean

Negative skew

22

What is a type I error?

Stating there IS a difference when none exists

23

What is a type II error?

Stating that there is NOT a difference when there is

24

If the CI includes zero...

there is no significant difference

25

If the CI includes one...

there still may not be a difference but there may

26

If the CIs do not overlap...

there is a difference

27

What is an ANOVA?

It looks at the difference between 3 or more groups

28

What is a chi-square?

Looks at difference between two or more percentages

29

What are the types of disease prevention?

Primary - prevent disease
Secondary - early detection
Tertiary - reduce disability form disease

30

When is parental consent not required?

Pregnancy, contraceptives, STDs, drug addiction, emergencies

31

What does APGAR mean?

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

32

What is a "good" APGAR? "Bad"?

7 or greater is good, <4 resuscitate

33

What is low birth weight?

< 2500 g

34

T/F In the elderly, sexual interest decreases

FALSE

35

What are the BMI scores?

<18.5 is underweight
18.5-24.9 is normal weight
25-29.9 is overweight
30 obesity
35 severe obesity
40 morbid obesity
45 super obesity

36

Beta waves have the ____ frequency and the ____ amplitude

highest; lowest

37

Sleep enuresis is treated with?

oral desmopressin