Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (37)

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1

## What is a case control study?

### It compares a group of people with a disease to a group of people without a disease; it looks at odds ratios -- Why do they have this disease? Erin Brokovich

2

## What is a cohort study?

### Compares a group with an exposure to a group without an exposure to see if it increases the likelihood of disease; looks at relative risk -- Will they get the disease?

3

## What is a cross-sectional study?

### Collects data from a group to assess frequency of disease at a point in time; DOES NOT establish causality but can show risk factors for disease

4

## What is a twin concordance study?

### Compares monozygotic to dizygotic twins to measure heritability

5

## What is an adoption study?

### Compares siblings raised by biological v. adoptive parents to measure heritability and environmental influence

6

## What are the four phases of clinical trials?

###
Phase I - healthy volunteers (safety, toxicity, PK)

Phase II - patients with disease of interest (treatment efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects)

Phase III - large number of patients assigned to treatment or placebo

Phase IV - Postmarketing surveillance

7

## What is sensitivity?

### Probability that a positive test is positive in disease (SnOUT)

8

## What is specificity?

### Probability that a negative test is actually negative (SpIN)

9

## What is the positive predictive value?

### Probability that a person actually has a disease given a positive test result

10

## What is the negative predictive value?

### Probability that a negative test result indicates a true negative

11

## What is the incidence rate?

### It looks at the number of new cases in a time period out of the population at risk during the same time period

12

## What is prevalence?

### It looks at the number of existing cases out of the population at risk

13

## What is the number needed to treat?

### Number of patients that need to be treated for 1 patient to benefit

14

## What is the number needed to harm?

### Number of patients that need to be exposed to a risk factor for 1 to be harmed

15

## What is absolute risk reduction?

### Reduction in risk with treatment as compared to a control

16

## If there is a high precision, there is a low ___

### standard deviation

17

## What is procedure bias?

### When more attention is given to the treatment group

18

## What is lead-time bias?

### Early detection is confused with increased survival

19

## What is the Hawthorne effect?

### When a group changes its behavior because it knows it is being watched

20

## In which skew is mean>median>mode?

### Positive skew

21

##
In which skew is mean

### Negative skew

22

## What is a type I error?

### Stating there IS a difference when none exists

23

## What is a type II error?

### Stating that there is NOT a difference when there is

24

## If the CI includes zero...

### there is no significant difference

25

## If the CI includes one...

### there still may not be a difference but there may

26

## If the CIs do not overlap...

### there is a difference

27

## What is an ANOVA?

### It looks at the difference between 3 or more groups

28

## What is a chi-square?

### Looks at difference between two or more percentages

29

## What are the types of disease prevention?

###
Primary - prevent disease

Secondary - early detection

Tertiary - reduce disability form disease

30

## When is parental consent not required?

### Pregnancy, contraceptives, STDs, drug addiction, emergencies

31

## What does APGAR mean?

### appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

32

## What is a "good" APGAR? "Bad"?

### 7 or greater is good, <4 resuscitate

33

## What is low birth weight?

### < 2500 g

34

## T/F In the elderly, sexual interest decreases

### FALSE

35

## What are the BMI scores?

###
<18.5 is underweight

18.5-24.9 is normal weight

25-29.9 is overweight

30 obesity

35 severe obesity

40 morbid obesity

45 super obesity

36

## Beta waves have the ____ frequency and the ____ amplitude

### highest; lowest

37