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Flashcards in Behavioral Science - Development Deck (113)
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1
Q

What five categories are assessed by an Apgar score?

A

APGAR: Appearance (color), Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

2
Q

What is a perfect Apgar score?

A

10

3
Q

If a newborn is breathing regularly at birth, what is the Apgar score for respiration?

A

2

4
Q

If a newborn appears blue or pale, has a pink trunk, or is pink all over, what are its Apgar scores, respectively?

A

0 for blue or pale; 1 for pink trunk; 2 for pink all over

5
Q

At how many minutes after birth is an Apgar score assessed?

A

At 1 and 5 minutes after birth

6
Q

At 1 minute after birth, a newborn has a pink trunk, a pulse of 130, coughs, has some activity, but irregular respirations. What is the Apgar score for this newborn?

A

7

7
Q

At 1 minute after birth, a newborn appears blue, has a pulse of 90, has a grimace, is limp, and has irregular respirations. What is the Apgar score at 1 minute for this newborn?

A

3

8
Q

How many categories are assessed by an Apgar score, and what is the maximum score for each category?

A

Five categories; 2 points maximum for each category

9
Q

What are the Apgar scores for pulse in a newborn?

A

0 for no pulse; 1 for 100 beats per minute; 2 for 100 beats per minute

10
Q

If a newborn is unresponsive to simulation at birth, what is the Apgar score for grimace (reflex irritability)?

A

0

11
Q

If a newborn grimaces when stimulated at birth, what is the Apgar score for grimace (reflex irritability)?

A

1

12
Q

If a newborn grimaces and coughs when stimulated at birth, what is the Apgar score for grimace (reflex irritability)?

A

2

13
Q

If a newborn is limp at birth, what is the Apgar score for activity (muscle tone)?

A

0

14
Q

If a newborn is holding his or her arms and legs at midline but has little spontaneous active movement of the limbs, what is the Apgar score for activity (muscle tone)?

A

1

15
Q

If a newborn is active at birth, what is the Apgar score for activity (muscle tone)?

A

2

16
Q

What are the Apgar scores for respiration in a newborn?

A

0 for no respirations; 1 for breathing irregularly; 2 for spontaneous, regular respirations

17
Q

True or False? Low birth weight is associated with a reduced incidence of emotional problems.

A

False

  • Low birth weight is associated with a greater incidence of emotional problems
  • This is due to immaturities in brain development at birth
18
Q

What is the definition of low birth weight?

A

2500 g

19
Q

What are the two main causes of low birth weight?

A

Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction

20
Q

True or False? Low birth weight is associated with a greater incidence of physical problems.

A

TRUE

21
Q

What are five major complications of low birth weight?

A

Infection, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and persistent fetal circulation

22
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant with a rooting reflex?

A

Birth to 3 months

23
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who has begun to crawl?

A

7 to 9 months

24
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who has begun to speak a few words?

A

15 months

25
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has begun to speak in complete sentences?

A

3 years

26
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has developed a conscience?

A

6 to 11 years (superego)

27
Q

What is the approximate age of an adolescent girl who has begun to form her own personality?

A

11 years

28
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who begins to realize he is a little boy?

A

24 to 36 months (core gender identity)

29
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who can hold his or her head up?

A

3 months

30
Q

At what age does Babinski's reflex disappear?

A

15 months

31
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who is anxious when separated from his or her mother?

A

15 months

32
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can draw a stick figure?

A

4 years (simple drawing)

33
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has same-sex friends?

A

6 to 11 years

34
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can stack nine blocks?

A

30 to 36 months (number of blocks stacked = age in years 3)

35
Q

At what age does the Moro reflex disappear?

A

3 months

36
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who has begun to walk?

A

15 months

37
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who can climb stairs?

A

12 to 24 months

38
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who identifies with the same-sex parent?

A

6 to 11 years

39
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who can roll from front to back?

A

4 to 5 months

40
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who smiles back at you?

A

3 months

41
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who can stack three blocks?

A

12 to 24 months

42
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can ride a tricycle?

A

3 years (rides 3 wheels at age 3)

43
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who can sit when propped up?

A

4 to 5 months

44
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who appears to recognize people?

A

4 to 5 months

45
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has a 200-word vocabulary?

A

12 to 24 months

46
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can hop on one foot?

A

4 years

47
Q

True or False? Adolescents reach the formal operations stage of cognitive development around the time that puberty occurs.

A

TRUE

48
Q

What is the approximate age of an adolescent boy who has abstract reasoning ability?

A

13 years (formal operations stage of cognitive development)

49
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can copy a line?

A

3 years

50
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who can sit alone?

A

7 to 9 months

51
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who is anxious around strangers?

A

7 to 9 months

52
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who speaks in two-word sentences?

A

2 years old

53
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who is toilet trained?

A

30 to 36 months (pee at age 3)

54
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can draw a circle?

A

3 years

55
Q

What is the approximate age of an adolescent boy who has begun to form his own personality?

A

13 years

56
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has a 900-word vocabulary?

A

3 years

57
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can play Ring Around the Rosie with others?

A

3 years (group play)

58
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who, together with another child, builds a tower of blocks?

A

4 years (cooperative play)

59
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who can stack six blocks?

A

18 to 24 months

60
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who continues to search for a toy that you have put behind your back?

A

12 to 24 months (object permanence)

61
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who has imaginary friends?

A

4 years

62
Q

What is the youngest age at which an infant will turn toward a voice?

A

Within the first 3 months

63
Q

What is the approximate age of an infant who can orient himself/herself to voice?

A

Birth to 3 months

64
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can copy a cross?

A

4 years

65
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can button buttons and/or zip zippers?

A

4 years

66
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who has developed a rapport with his or her aunt?

A

18 to 24 months (rapprochement)

67
Q

What is the approximate age of a toddler who plays alongside, but not with, another toddler?

A

24 to 48 months (parallel play)

68
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can read?

A

6 to 11 years

69
Q

What is the approximate age of a child who can understand the concept of death?

A

6 to 11 years

70
Q

How long does Piaget's sensorimotor stage last?

A

From birth to 2 years of age

71
Q

Which of Piaget's stages is described by egocentric exploration of the world with the five senses?

A

Sensorimotor stage

72
Q

During which of Piaget's stages does the infant engage in use of objects to obtain a goal and achieve an understanding of object permanence?

A

Sensorimotor stage

73
Q

Which of Piaget's stages lasts from 2-7 years of age?

A

Preoperational stage

74
Q

Piaget's preoperational stage is characterized by acquisition of _____ (motor/language) skills.

A

Motor

75
Q

What type of thinking predominates in the preoperational stage?

A

Magical thinking predominates with no logical thinking

76
Q

Piaget's concrete operation stage takes place during what ages?

A

Age 7-12 years

77
Q

During which of Piaget's stages does thinking cease being egocentric?

A

Concrete operational stage

78
Q

Which of Piaget's stages marks the start of logical thinking?

A

Concrete operational stage

79
Q

During Piaget's concrete operational stage, logical thinking is confined to _____ (concrete/abstract) concepts.

A

Concrete

80
Q

At what age does Piaget's formal operational stage begin?

A

Age 12 years

81
Q

Which of Piaget's stages marks the development of abstract reasoning?

A

Formal operational stage

82
Q

What Tanner stage involves pubic hair development, breast tissue elevation in females, and increased testes size in males?

A

Tanner stage 2

83
Q

What Tanner stage in males involves pubic hair becoming darker and curly and penis length increasing?

A

Tanner stage 3

84
Q

What Tanner stage involves the areola raising in females and the penis width increasing, the scrotal skin darkening, and the glans developing in males?

A

Tanner stage 4

85
Q

What Tanner stage involves adult development and the areola no longer being raised in females?

A

Tanner stage 5

86
Q

What Tanner stage occurs during childhood and involves no secondary sex characteristics?

A

Tanner stage 1

87
Q

What types of sexual changes occur in elderly men?

A

Slower erection/ejaculation, longer refractory period

88
Q

Name four common medical conditions among the elderly.

A

Arthritis, hypertension, heart disease, and osteoporosis

89
Q

What types of sexual changes occur in elderly women?

A

Vaginal shortening, thinning, and dryness

90
Q

True or False? Sexual interest declines among elderly individuals.

A

False; sexual interest does not decrease with age

91
Q

Is the amount of time spent in rapid eye movement sleep increased or decreased among the elderly?

A

Decreased

92
Q

Is the amount of time spent in slow-wave sleep increased or decreased in the elderly?

A

Decreased

93
Q

Is sleep latency increased or decreased in the elderly?

A

Increased

94
Q

True or False? The number of awakenings during the night decreases in the elderly.

A

False; the number of awakenings during the night increases

95
Q

Psychiatric disorders are found at (higher/lower) prevalence among the healthy elderly population.

A

Lower

96
Q

True or False? Men 65-74 years of age have the highest suicide rate in the United States.

A

TRUE

97
Q

True or False? Immune response improves with adult aging.

A

False; the immune response worsens with aging

98
Q

True or False? Bladder control improves with adult aging.

A

False; bladder control worsens with aging

99
Q

True or False? Renal function declines with adult aging.

A

TRUE

100
Q

True or False? Pulmonary function declines with adult aging.

A

TRUE

101
Q

True or False? Gastrointestinal function declines with adult aging.

A

TRUE

102
Q

True or False? Muscle mass decreases with adult aging.

A

TRUE

103
Q

True or False? Fat composition decreases with adult aging.

A

False; fat composition increases with aging

104
Q

True or False? Intelligence declines with adult aging.

A

False; intelligence does not decline with age

105
Q

True or False? One may experience illusions during normal bereavement.

A

TRUE

106
Q

How long does normal grief typically last after the death of a loved one?

A

6 months to 1 year

107
Q

What are four characteristic components of normal bereavement?

A

Shock, denial, guilt, and somatic symptoms

108
Q

What is pathologic grief?

A

Grief that is excessively intense or prolonged or grief that is delayed, inhibited, or denied

109
Q

What are three symptoms indicative of pathological grief?

A

Depression, delusions, hallucinations

110
Q

What three experiences may patients with pathologic grief have?

A

Depressive symptoms, delusions, and hallucinations

111
Q

What are the five stages of grief, according to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross?

A

Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Grief, Acceptance (Death Arrives Bringing Grave Adjustments)

112
Q

True or False? The five stages of grief progress in a predictable order.

A

False; they do not always occur in a predictable order

113
Q

True or False? More than one stage of grief can be present at any one time.

A

TRUE