Flashcards in Behaviourism Deck (5)
What are the assumptions for the behaviourist approach?
You only study observable and measurable behaviour.
Try to maintain objectivity and control the research.
The basic processes that govern learning are the same in all species so you can generalise from animals.
The two key forms of learning are classical and operant conditioning.
What is classical conditioning and who demonstrated it?
It is learning through association and was demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov who showed through a dog that a neutral stimulus can come to elicit a conditioned response – salivating.
What is operant conditioning?
This is learning through the consequences of behaviour. Skinner suggested that learning is an active process with humans and animals operate on their environment.
What are the three categories operant conditioning and what do they involve?
Positive reinforcement – receiving a reward for certain behaviour.
Negative reinforcement – avoiding something unpleasant by behaving in a certain way.
Punishment – an unpleasant consequence of behaviour.