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Flashcards in Binocular Correspondence Deck (80)
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1

what is hering's 2nd law of visual direction

there is a retinal point to point relationship between the 2 eyes
-for every retinal point in one eye there is a corresponding retinal point in the fellow eye w/ an identical sense of visual direction

2

what is hering's 3rd law

objects on the visual axis of either eye in symmetrical convergence appear to be on the median plane of the head (straight ahead)

3

what is a cyclopean direction

a single visual direction in the binocular visual field

4

binocular egocentric direction = ___+_____

cyclopean direction+gaze registration

5

cyclopean directions are analagous to...

oculocentric direction

6

all points on the retina have a binocular corresponding point except...

at the optic nerve head

7

normal correspondence only dpends on the retinal points being stimulated and is nnot affected by...

image luminance
contrast
color
size
orientation

8

normal correspondence is very stable, altered by ...

only a few minutes of arc in the foveas, and then only by extreme fusional stress

9

what is spatial correspondnce a property of

the brain
also evident in the somatosensory system

10

what is binocular disparity

stimulation of noncorresponding points

11

each pair of corresponding oculocenric directions form a single....

cyclopean direction

12

what is a single visual direction in the binocular visual field

cylclopean direction

13

what are some synonyms of binocular disparity

retinal disparity
physiological disparity

14

what can crossed disparities stimulate

1. steroscropic "nearness" if not a large amount of disparity
2. crossed diplopia from disparity too large
3. ocular convergence can be stimulated to look at the near object

15

what can uncrossed disparity stimulate

1. stereoscopic "farness" if disparity small enough
2. uncrossed diplopia disparity too large
3. ocular divergnce to look at far object

16

what is the horopter

the set of points in physical space that can stimulate corresponding retinal points when eyes are converged to aim at a fixation point

17

how is the horopter shaped

bowl-shaped surface in near vision and flattens out as you look farther away

18

what is the best at the horopter

stereopsis and binocular summation
-single vision also occurs here

19

what is the veith-muller circle (VMO)
what question does it answer

theoretical horopter
"in principle, where should you put lights in physical space to stimulate corresponding points"

20

what does the VMO assume

eyes are identical and optically undisorted

21

what do objects in the VMo stimulate

zero binocular disparity

22

waht can objects in the peripheral vision stimulate

cross disparity
zero disparity
uncrossed disparity

23

where are the images for crossed disparity
where is it in relation to the VMO

images are more temporalward on the retinas, relative to corresponding opints
-inside the VMO

24

where are the images for uncrossed disparity
where is it in relation to the VMO

images are more nasalward on the retinas, relavtive to correspoinding points
-outside the VMO

25

what is the empirical horopter

answering the question "where do i have to put lights in physical space to stimulate corresponding points in this person"

26

what direction do we measure the horopter

horiztonal (longtidinal) direction

27

what are the additional rod adjustment criteria that measure an approximate horopter

apparent fronto-parallel plane
equal distance
haplopia
max stereo actuity
zero vergence

28

which methods of measuring the horopter don't reflect the effects of fixation disparity

apparent fronto-parallel plane
equal distance

29

which method of measuring the horopter measures the extent of panum's area

haplopia "single vision"

30

what will non zero vergence make you use to see an object

vergence eye movement