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Flashcards in Bio 100 Final Deck (67):
1

artificial Selection

Breeding certain breeds to create a desired breed

2

Lamarck

Father of evolution. remembered for an idea that was false. Idea was: changing your behavior to change your DNA.

3

Darwin

Father of Natural Selection

4

Reasons natural selection happens

Overproduction
Limited Resources
Genetic Variation
Survival of the Adequate

5

How to measure biological success

Survival and reproduction

6

Evidence of Evolution

Fossils
Bio-Geography (a plant transported from one continent to another)
Comparative Anatomy
Comparative Embryology
Comparative Behaviors
Molecular Biology (Comparing DNA)

7

Mammals Separated into 4 groups:

Mammal-Like reptiles
Montremes (platypus - the only animal w/o nipples)
Marsupials - Born Premature
Placentals - Bears squirrels

8

General body plans of animals

Symmetry
Cephalization (can tell where head is located)
type of guts
body cavities
segmentation
Tissue differentiation

9

Phylum: Porifera

Sponges
Synap: No tissue, spicules (little needles)

10

Phylum: Cnidaria

Jellyfish, sea anemones, corals
Synap: Radial Symmetry

11

Phylum: Platyhelminthes

Flatworms and Tapeworms
Synap: bilateral symmetry

12

Phylum: Moluscs

Slugs
Synap: Mantle

13

Phylum: Nematoda

Roundworms
Synap: pseudocoelom - gut cavity isn't lines with mesosperm

14

Phylum: Echinoderms

Starfish and Sand dollars
Synap: Pentaradial Symmetry

15

Phylum: Cordata

Fish (we humans also fall under this phylum)
Synap: Dorsal Nerve Cord, Throat slits, Post anal tail

16

What do insects have (body)

6 legs and 3 body regions

17

Things that make Humans unique

The EXTENT to which we use the following: Tools, Brains, Culture, Thumbs, Language, Math, Habitat Manipulation.
Also eternal perspective

18

Why reproduce?

Continuity, and increase population

19

Definition "Obligate Out-Crosser"

Must reproduce asexually

20

Definition "Facultative Out-Crosser"

Can Choose to produce asexually or sexually

21

What is Pando?

A network of aspens that's the largest living organism in the world

22

Why do we have a sex drive?

willingness to pair

23

3 things that plants are:

1. Multicellular
2. Phototroph (means doesn't produce it's own food)
3. Uses Chlorophyll A and B during Photosynthesis (only synapomorphy of plants)

24

4 groups of plants:

1. Bryophytes (Moss)
2. Ferns & Relatives
3. Gymnosperms (conifers (type of tree))
4. Angiosperms (flowering plants)

25

Why do plants exist?

to make more plants

26

How to flowers reproduce?

By dispersing gametes in random ways (pollination)

27

definition: Whorl

spinny part of the flower

28

Plants are either: (2 categories)

Monocots or Dicots

29

Plants: Cotyledon, Monocot vs. Dicot

Embryo of the seed
Monocot has 1
Dicot has 2

30

Plants: Floral Parts (petals), Monocot vs. Dicot

Monocot has petals in multiples of 3
Dicot has petals in multiples of 4 or 5

31

Plants: Leaf Veins, Monocot vs Dicot

Monocot has parallel veins
Dicot has net like veins

32

Plants: Vascular Tissue, Monocot vs Dicot

Monocot has tissue throughout ground of stem
Dicot has tissue in the ring of the stem

33

Kingdom Fungi: 3 Characteristics

1. Multicellular
2. Heterotrophic
3. Extracellular Digestion (synap of Fungi)

34

5 kinds of Fungi:

1. Mold
2. Sac Fungi (yeast, penicillin)
3. Club Fungi (Mushrooms)
4. Fungi Imperfecti
5. Lichens (mutualism with another organism (grows on trees))

35

Protista have 4 roles:
(protists are not plants, animals, or fungi. But their own group)

1. Decomposers
2. Pathogens
3. Photosynthesizers
4. Chemosynthesizers

36

What is life? (4 traits)

1. Cells and Metabolism
2. Requires energy levels
3. Senses and responds to changing conditions
4. Grows and reproduces

37

Viruses (not cellular, not living, but almost)
2 characteristics:

1. Protein coat surrounding the Nucleic Acid
2. Can't reproduce by itself

38

4 Types of viruses:

1. Common cold
2. Influenza
3. HIV
4. AIDS

39

What's HIV?

Human Immunodeficiency Virus
knocks down immune system so you can't fight off diseases

40

What's AIDS?

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
A set of conditions that results from HIV

41

What is a Habitat?

An organism's Address

42

What is a Niche?

An organism's Job

43

"Competitive Exclusion Principle"

2 species that require identical resources cannot coexist indefinitely

44

"Red Queen Hypothesis"

You have to run as fast as you can just to stay in place

45

What will be the cause of the 6th extinction?

Humans

46

Biotic Province

Major Divisions of the earth bases on phylogenetically related assemblages (homology). based on who is related to who. Province = Homo

47

Biome

Land region distinctive by it's habitat, community structure, niche and species (analogous). Biome = Analogy

48

Abiotic Biome Factors:

Temperature, Water, Elevation, Light, Moisture, Chemistry, Nutrients, Fire.

49

Elements found in living things (6 things)

(CHONPS)
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Sulphur

50

Education strategy (top methods)

Facts, concepts, methods, application, relevance, and life long learning

51

Discovery Tools humans use

Faith, Force, Consensus, Art, Science

52

Age of Universe

13.8b years

53

Age of Earth

4.6b years

54

Earliest Life on earth (years ago)

3.5b years

55

Earliest Homo sapiens (years ago)

200k years

56

5 cool things about water

(PT CSI)
1. Polar
2. Thermal Buffer
3. Cohesion
4. Solvent
5. Ice Floats

57

Life emerges when what 2 elements are mixed?

Water and Carbon

58

3 Kinds of bonds: strongest to weakest

Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds

59

4 Macromolecules of life

1. Carbs
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acid

60

Central Dogma of molecular biology

DNA makes RNA makes Protein
(Replication (loops)) -> (Transcription) -> (Translation) (Regulation (loops))
(RTTR)

61

Phylum: Arthropod

Crabs, Beetles
Synap: exoskeleton, segmented body
God created the most arthropods

62

Why asexual reproduction?

Quickly fills a habitat

63

Why sexual reproduction?

Diversity!

64

What things should humans consider before their population reaches the carrying capacity?

Stewardship and responsibility
The possibilities of limited resources
Alternative technologies to support life
The impact of their population on themselves and other species

65

Types of wealth of a country

Material, Cultural, Biological

66

What does it mean to be human? (what should we respect?)

Treat material, cultural, and living things with respect.

67

What is life? (definition 2)

Order, Complex organization
Regulation. Homeostasis
Growth and development. Genes
Use energy
Respond to the environment
Reproduce
Evolve