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Flashcards in Tech 202 M1 Deck (207):

VINE of creativity

Valuable - it has worth to society
Intentional - can't be lucky
Novel - unique, has originality
Excellent - significant effort to make it the best it can be.


The Four elements of creativity (4Ps)
(these things will help us be creative)

Person - Courageous, Observant, Passionate
Product - Unique, Valued
Pressure - (surrounding the creative effort)
Environment of work - the push of the environment, an environmental reason to be creative, (war).
Conditions of society


Lateral Creativity

Breadth, Innovation, Uniqueness, Analogies, Out-of-the-box, Non-Logic. (coming up with the idea)


Linear Creativity

Focus, Depth, Skills, Hard Work, Experience, Growth, Expansion. (working at the idea)


Small c

many have done it, something creative to yourself personally, developing a personal skill that others know, doesn’t necessarily impress others.


Big C

1st one to develop idea, contributes to society.


How can I achieve big C creativity

Start now, put in the time and effort, skills can be developed and improved, Get a creative idea (flexibility) and then add to it (fluency)


Creative ideas: Fluency

Ideas based on the original concept or application (something a brick is used for), Ideas generated by logic, The number of responses within a category, Left Brain thinking (more organized)


Creative Ideas: Flexibility

Ideas not based on the original concept or application (brick is a paperweight).
Ideas generated by analogy (a brick is as heavy as a stone so I could throw it, a brick is rectangular so I could use it for drawing a rectangle on paper).
The number of different categories
Right brain thinking (more disorganized)


Relate the stories of the baptistery doors and of the cathedral dome in Florence.

The government held contests to see who could design them better. Ghiberti won the door contest, the doors had to depict the sacrifice of Isaac. Brunelleschi won the Dome competition.


Understand the contributions of the Medici family and why they were attacked.

They were extremely influential and smart. Had so many rulers in succession. They took many risks to gain power, they backed a pirate to become the pope and in return he favored them by making the Medici bank the principal bank. The Medicis led the grand dome project competition that Brunelleschi won.
The Pazzi family wanted to take them over. So they did the Pazzi plot where the pope killed Lorenzo's brother and tried to stab him after. Soon after Lorenzo the magnificent died, Savonarola (a priest) began preaching against the Medici's and led the people to rally against the Medici's and drive them out.


Understand the origins and types of perspective.

Linear perspective was invented by Brunelleschi and was the beginning of perspective. Then after came other art forms such as foreshortening, chiaroscuro etc. invented by Leonardo which took artistic perspective even further.


Understand the resistance to Renaissance art and creativity from Savonarola and why he gained power.

Savonarola led the people to run the Medici's out of Italy. He became a religious tyrant and outlawed jewels, non - religious books, non-religious paintings, make-up, and other worldly things. He led Italy, but was later excommunicated and burned at the stake.


What does "Renaissance" Mean

Rebirth of classical Greece and Rome


Where did the Renaissance begin

City of Florence Italy



Inventor of the dome concept for the II Duomo cathedral in Florence. He invented a laterally moving crane in order to place the dome on top and got the world's first patent. He invented linear perspective in art.



renaissance sculpture. Sculpted saint George, David, and Mary Magdalene. Lorenzo Medici hired him.


Sandro Botticelli

Florence renaissance painter. Painted "Birth of Venus." his work was pagan.


What was different in Renaissance art than the middle ages?

In Renaissance there was Realism in art, used perspective, used classical Pagan themes, used Geometrical arrangement of figures, used chiaroscuro, sfumato, backgrounds, and artists were able to live from commissions.


What is Sfumato

painting technique used, means to soften the edges, developed during the renaissance.


What is Chiaroscuro

using light and shadowing to create perspective in painting, developed during the renaissance.


Pazzi Plot

In Florence during the renaissance, the Pazzi family was jealous of the Medici family, so the pope stabbed Lorenzo's brother as he was passing them the sacrament, he next tried to kill Lorenzo but he fled and exposed the pope. Everyone found out what had happened and was appalled.


Loss of Medici power

Lorenzo the magnificent died, A priest Savonarola preached against the Medicis and outlawed jewels, non religious books and paintings, make-up and other worldly things. He rallied the people to drive out the Medicis.



A priest that drove out the Medicis and outlawed worldly things. He was a tyrant, religious dictator. Made everyone destroy everything pagan or classical. The pope tried to excommunicate him, then he tried to excommunicate the pope, then the pope finally really did excommunicate him, the people burned Savonarola at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria.


Understand the innovations in art that were attributable to the work of Leonardo and be able to identify them in paintings.

Developed artistic geometrical arrangement, chiaroscuro, sfumato, and backgrounds. Invented the crossbow and the bicycle. Painted Madonna of the Rocks, Mona Lisa, and the Last supper. Which use his techniques.


Understand the creativity of Leonardo in areas other than art.

He redirected a river, wrote from right to left b/c he was left handed, invented human flying machine, crossbow, and bicycle. Used 800 words to describe the perfect face made up of golden ratios.


Understand the creativity of Michelangelo and be able to discuss several of his sculptures.

Sculpted Pietá, Moses (w/ horns), and painted the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.


Understand the creativity of the Sistine Chapel works by Michelangelo (the ceiling and the altar wall) and be able to discuss them.

Spent a long time painting this but resented every minute of it b/c he hated painting the ceiling.


Leonardo da Vinci

high renaissance scientist, engineer, and artist.  developed new art techniques such as geometrical arrangement, chiaroscuro, sfumato, and backgrounds.  Invented the crossbow and a form of the bicycle.  Painted "Madonna of the Rocks," which used geometrical arrangement, chiaroscuro, sfumato, foreshortening, background treatments.  Painted "The Mona Lisa," uses triangle arrangement of face, chiaroscuro with light on one side of her face.  Painted "The Last Supper," used a fresco method and the painting is deteriorating now.


Michelangelo Buonarroti

High renaissance sculptor and painter after Leonardo da Vinci.  Lived in the home of Lorenzo the Magnificent. sculpted "David."  He and Leonardo had an art challenge.  Michelangelo was very short tempered and quit the competition and left for Rome.  Michelangelo loved the Medicis.  Sculpted Pietá, Moses (has horns).  Painted the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel in Vatican and resented every minute of it.



High renaissance Painter after Michelangelo.  could easily copy the style of other painters.  Raphael helped paint the pope's private rooms in the school of Athens w/ Michelangelo but Michel put Raphael into a different room.  Also painted "Madonna of the Meadow" (comparable to Leonardo's work).  Rafael's style is much like Leonardo's.


Renaissance music, some features of

start of western music.  Tone Painting in music: words dictated how the music flowed. ex) the music would pick up when the words would say "lets go up the hill." 


Tone Painting

Renaissance style of music where the music would change with the meaning of the lyrics.  "go up the hill" music gets higher, "go down the hill" music gets deeper.


Monophonic music

Middle age musical texture.  One voice, or unison (medieval chant).


Polyphonic Music

Renaissance period texture.  Many voices, multiple melody lines.


Homophonic Music

Late renaissance musical texture.  One main melody line and other melodies support it.  Principle texture for modern music.


Giovanni Palestrina

High renaissance musician.  wrote over 100 masses (sacred music).  Compositions are Polyphonic in nature (b/c he's from the high renaissance).  Named "The Prince of Music" and buried in St. Peter's Basilica (a large church).


Dante Alighieri

Florentine Writer, wrote divine comedy.



Florentine writer, "the Father of Humanism," b/c his teachings are known as Humanism.  lived 1 generation later than Dante.  He's considered as the link from the middle ages and the renaissance. Petrarch is best known for his Italian poetry, notably the Canzoniere("Songbook") and the Trionfi ("Triumphs").


What does it mean to be a renaissance man

Expert in many fields b/c they mastered one field and moved on to another.  they had depth and breadth.  they were creative b/c they could jump from 1 style to another.


Understand the basic principles recommended by Machiavelli for avoiding chaos.

The primary role is to avoid Chaos, and to do so the gov must stabilize the people!


Be able to compare Machiavelli’s suggestions with principles of modern government.

The role of the gov is to protect the people, punish criminals, provide services to citizens - education, streets, water supply
so pretty inline w/ what the gov does


Be able to compare Machiavelli’s suggestions with principles of the gospel of Christ.

Machiavelli believes we should avoid chaos through stabilization and government regulation and all will be brought to a wonderful end. This is similar to Satan's plan, to take away our free agency, not let us make mistakes, and all have a happy ending. Christ's plan is to give us more agency and let us make mistakes so that we can learn and progress.


Be able to discuss the problems that might arise in government if Machiavelli is observed and the problems that might be encountered if Machiavelli is ignored.

Pros to Machiavelli: government knows their role, they can avoid chaos within the people, people get many services provided to them.
Cons to Machiavelli: people may feel entitled to more services, change is sometimes unavoidable and thus can chaos, the leader sometimes must lie or go back on his word b/c "the ends justify the means." People are too controlled.


According to Machiavelli in The Prince it is better for a Prince to be feared than loved. Yet, Machiavelli says a Prince should try to be feared without being hated. Machiavelli says it is possible to avoid hatred if a Prince refrains from doing all of the following

Execute people unjustly.
Take their property.
Harass their women.


Why is Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper in such poor condition today?

Because Leonardo was experimenting with new fresco materials he developed that did not work well.


what are some themes or characteristics of early Renaissance art?

Classical themes.
Linear perspective.
Geometric arrangement.


Which of the statues of Michelangelo has horns on it because of a mistranslation in the version of the Bible that was used in Michelangelo's time?



The following things are true of Renaissance composer Giovanni Palestrina?

He saved polyphonic music from being banned by the Catholic Church.

He was buried in St. Peter's Cathedral with the epitaph “The Prince of Music.”

He wrote the Mass in Honor of Pope Marcellus.


What does the term chiaroscuro mean?

The use of light and shadow to create increased drama and a greater feel of three dimensions.


Why did Machiavelli write The Prince?

To win the favor of the ruling Medici family in hopes of having his exile from Florence ended.


According to Machiavelli in The Prince, what would happen to any ruler who “would act up to a perfect standard of goodness in everything”?

They would be ruined by so many others who are not good.


Which of the following men would NOT be a good example of the concept of Renaissance humanism?



According to Machiavelli in The Prince, why should a Prince not be overly worried about being called “miserly” with his money rather than “liberal”?

Because saving his money allows the Prince to defend the state and engage in other enterprises without placing a financial burden on his people.


Understand the basic principles cited by Martin Luther as a basis for his break with the Catholic Church.

Luther didn’t agree w/ the indulgences (money for sins), simony, dispensations, power of the pope, church unwillingness to change of the Catholic church. B/c he was defiant he was excommunicated.


Be able to explain the political situation in Germany that allowed Martin Luther to be protected from the pope’s attacks.

The people of Germany supported him greatly b/c they read his pamphlets.


Be able to discuss the similarities and differences between the efforts of Calvin and Zwingli in breaking with the Catholic Church.

Zwingli was much more violent than Calvin b/c he led a army against the Catholics and died doing so. Calvin was extremely strict and was even thrown out of his city by his own people and was later let back in.


Be able to discuss the situation in France for Huguenots.

In France the 2 main religions were Catholicism, and the Calvinist Huguenots. Catherine d'Medici, mother of king Charles IX, did the St. Bartholomew's day massacre in which she slaughtered thousands of Huguenots.


Martin Luther

a German who started the Lutheran church.  He got caught in a rainstorm and told God that if he was protected he would devote his life to God.  He was depressed b/c he was relaxed with the strict rules of the church. Didn't agree w/ the Catholic church's indulgences (money for sins), simony (selling of church positions), dispensations (selling of papal exceptions to normal church rulers such as ending a marriage), power of the pope, church unwillingness to change.  He posted 95 theses (1517) pointing out things wrong w/ the church.  He was very defiant, and was creative to print out pamphlets to give to the Germans who were hungry for reading materials with the invention of the printing press.  argued w/ Charles V (holy roman emperor and king of Austria and Spain), in the Diet of Worms.  Luther was defiant and fled to Saxony Germany where he translated the Bible to German.


Diet of Worms

Charles V (holy roman emperor, king of Austria and Spain) vs. Martin Luther.  Luther was very defiant and wouldn't budge on his beliefs so he had to flee to Saxony Germany.


The counter Reformation

The changes the Catholics made to their church in response to Martin Luther leaving the church and taking many of their members with him.



Catholic soldiers of Christ who reconverted many wayward protestants and Heathens (non christians).  They were very successful.


Council of Trent

A series of reforms to the Catholic church over 20 years held in Trent Italy


Zwingli of Zurich

Friendly w/ the Lutherans, led an armed rebellion against the Catholic church and died in battle.  Wanted to tie religion w/ nationalism. Created the anabaptists groups that influenced the modern groups; Mennonites and the Amish


John Calvin

French guy who started Presbyterianism.  disagreed w/ luther on many items of doctrine.  He was very strict so people once got angry w/ him and threw him out of the city, this caused divisions in the city so he was invited back in. Calvinist churches that sprung up were called Huguenots.


Francis I

Very powerful french king, Huguenots could not grow in France b/c of him.  He suppressed any religious discussion.  His son Henry II became king after.


Henry II

King of France after his father Francis I.  Married Catherine d'Medici.  They had 3 sons: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.  They didn't have a happy marriage b/c Henry II liked his mistresses more.  Francis II, his brother, became the next king


Francis II

King of France after his Father Francis I.  was very influenced by his mother Catherine d'Medici.  Had no sons so his brother Charles IX became king after.


Charles IX

King of France after his brother Francis II.  Was very influenced by his mother Catherine d'Medici.  Catherine was a huge opponent to the Huguenots.  St. Bartholomew's day Massacre happened under his rule.  Died w/out children so Henry III, his brother, was king next.


St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Catherine d'Medici convinced her son Charles IX (king of France) that there should be a massacre of Huguenots supporting the protestant movement.


Henry III

King of France after his brother Charles IX.  Also died w/out children like his 2 brothers so this ended the Valois Dynasty.


Henry IV

Next king of France after the 3 brothers who were influenced by their mother Catherine.  He was protestant before becoming a king, but converted to Catholicism to become the king.  "the throne is worth a mass" he said.  He began the Bourbon Dynasty.  He made the Edict of Nantes (religious toleration).


Edict of Nantes

An edict by Henry IV of France declaring religious toleration in France.


Wycliffe and Tyndale

English critics of the Catholic church.  Wycliffe was put in jail.


William Tyndale

translated the Bible into English


Jan Hus

from Bohemia, he was a Catholic critic and was burned at the stake.


Which of the following people were critics and reformers of the Catholic Church?

Jan Hus.

John Wycliffe.

Ulrich Zwingli.


Parts of the Catholic Counter Reformation?

The creation of a new order of monks called the Society of Jesus (or Jesuits).

The reactivation of the Inquisition to help ensure doctrinal purity amongst Catholics.

The Council of Trent was held to consider reforming the Catholic Church from within.


Martin Luther, in his “Address to the Christian Nobility,” argues that the Catholic Church has led people away into error and keeps itself from being reformed. He says the Church has guarded itself from attacks by its critics and from reform by building "three walls" around itself. Which are the 3 walls?

Only the Pope may interpret the scriptures, therefore the Church cannot be attacked by using the scriptures.
Only the Pope may summon a council, therefore a council cannot look into the actions of the Church.
The Church has declared that temporal powers have no jurisdiction over the Church, therefore governments and other civil authorities have no power over the Church.


Protestant reformer John Calvin attempted “to establish the perfect Christian community” in which city?

Geneva, Switzerland.


According to John Calvin, God has not created all on equal terms. How are they created differently according to Calvin?

God has created some predestined to eternal life and others to eternal damnation.


According to Martin Luther in 95 Theses, good Christians should be taught that ______________ does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.

He that gives to the poor or lends to the needy


In Salvation Through Faith Alone, who does Martin Luther say opposed his becoming a monk?

His Father


Why was Queen Mary Tudor of England known as “Bloody Mary”?

Because she insisted England become Catholic again and killed many Protestants (or huguenot calvinists) who would not reconvert.


What was the “Diet of Worms”?

The trial of Martin Luther held by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.


Understand the reasons for Henry VIII’s break with the Catholic Church.

Originally he wanted to divorce his wife. But he wasn’t able to b/c of the church, so he did it anyways and was excommunicated. Then he started the Church of England


Be able to discuss some of the principal literary works of the northern Renaissance.

Utopia (Thomas More), Erasmus translation of the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin, Michel de Montaigne's essay genre


Be able to discuss the differences in visual arts (painting and sculpture) between the Renaissance in Italy and northern Europe.

Northern Europe depicted more common ppl, and did more wood carvings, less paintings, and no sculptures in marble


Henry VIII

King of England.  His older brother was supposed to be king but died.  He was highly skilled, did jousting, was a renaissance ruler, knew languages.  Henry VIII got permission from the pope to marry his brother's wife Catherine.  Catherine had 1 daughter, Mary, then lots of stillborn babies which made Henry VIII angry and blamed her.    He divorced his wife Catherine and got excommunicated for it so he formed the Church of England.  He had many wives.  Next ruler was his son Edward VI.


Thomas More

lived in England under the rule of King Henry VIII.  The church of England made everyone swear an oath to Henry and his religion.  More said no, and was put in prison and was soon tried for treason and executed.  Wrote Utopia.


Edward VI

Son of King Henry VIII, ruled England as a teenager and died soon, so his sister Mary succeeded to the throne.


Bloody Mary

Daughter of King Henry VIII of England.   she was catholic and tried to change England back to a catholic country.  She killed many Protestants (Huguenot Calvinists) who wouldn't convert and earned her nickname "Bloody Mary".  After her death, Henry VIII's last child Elizabeth became queen.


Queen Elizabeth

Greatest queen of England ever. Last child of Henry VIII. Her siblings were unpopular rulers.



book by Thomas More.  It talks about the ideal society.  criticizes communism b/c people don't work hard enough.  Had ironies making fun of the England and France 100 year war.  



Dutch man who criticized the Catholic church for corruption.  viewed by many as the smartest man alive and lived during the time of Henry VIII and Thomas More.  Debated through writings with Luther.  Translated the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin, and omitted some of the changes he perceived as being introduced during the post-apostolic period.


Michel de Montaigne

French writer who invented the Essay Genre (merely personal feelings about a subject).  had the spirit of the renaissance. Wrote "of repentance"


Albrecht Dürer

German wood carver.  Carved "The Apocalypse" "Knight, Death, and the Devil" "St. Jerome in his Cell".  He used perspective and symbolism.  did Self portraits too.  Story about he and his brother Albert's alliance.  Where one would go to Rome to learn art first and the other would support and then they'd switch.  Albert ruined his hands working for Albrecht so Albrecht studied hands in tribute to his brother.


Pieter Brueghel the Elder

Painter from the Northern Renaissance.  Painted "Peasant Life" "Triumph of Death"


Understand how Elizabeth solved the problem of initial non-acceptance by the people and the Lords of England.

By going around, meeting the people and talking to them. She said she was married to them. She told the people she supported the lords and they liked that.


Understand how Elizabeth solved the financial crisis of England when she became queen.

She promoted things to help earn the kingdom money such as: trade and privateers. She also stopped the war in France which was costing lots of money. Her trips around the kingdom saved money.


Be able to discuss the way in which Elizabeth quelled the religious problems in England.

By making the religions equal in her eyes. And giving no favor to either.


Be able to discuss how Elizabeth solved the problems of France and Spain.

She ended the war with them. And her sister, Mary, living there at the time, had equal right to the kingdom and if she had a son he would have been the successor. But Elizabeth got lucky that Mary never had a son.


Understand how Elizabeth solved the problems of non-marriage and succession.

Her crappy sister "Mary" plotted to kill her and was put to death. The succession problems were tricky b/c Henry VIII had tricky posterity and lots of daughters. She said she was "married to the people"


Relate how Elizabeth’s vision gave England the “good life.”

By promoting arts and making them wealthy. They culture she left in England remains today.


James VI

Son of Mary queen of Scotts.  Became King of Scotland.  Succeeded Elizabeth to rule England.


Spanish Armada

Phillip II of Spain tried to woo Elizabeth but she only led him on.  He got angry so he attacked England with a fleet of ships.  They encountered weather problems so many were killed or weakened and England won.  This was the start of the Spanish decline.


Be able to discuss and give examples of Shakespeare’s new words and phrases and how these have enriched the English language.

invented over 2,000 new words including critical, aggravate, assassination, monumental, countless, obscene, forefathers, frugal, hurry, majestic, homicide, summit, reliance.  He also coined many phrases: stuck in a pickle, seen better days, without rhyme or reason, bid me good riddance, and eyesore.


Be able to discuss, in depth, the events and the motivations of people in the play Hamlet

Hamlet is the prince, and his father, King Hamlet, dies and his father's brother, Claudius, marries his wife, Queen Gertrude, all too fast. Hamlet finds his father's ghost telling him that Claudius killed King Hamlet to get the throne. Hamlet makes a plan to put on a play in which he reenacts how he thinks his fathers death occurred. Claudius flees the scene providing evidence that he in fact was the murderer. Meanwhile Hamlet loves this girl Ophelia, who listens to her father, Polonius's, advice and rejects hamlet. Hamlet leaves and Ophelia commits suicide. Hamlet goes into his mother Queen Gertrude's room and hears someone behind the curtain and stabs him thinking it was Claudius, turns out it was Polonius. Laertes (Ophelia's brother) fights Hamlet with a poisoned blade and even poisons a drink for Hamlet to drink. They fight and they are both stabbed by the poison blade. Queen Gertrude ends up drinking the poison drink, then right before Hamlet dies he stabs Claudius with the poison blade and makes him drink the poison. In the End everyone ends up dying after people poison and stab each other.


Be able to discuss the Ophelia syndrome and relate it to college life.

Ophelia only heeded the council of others rather than think to herself and when the time came for her to act for herself she was unable to do so. In college, we often write down exactly what the teacher says without critically thinking for ourselves. Teachers often make their students do this for tests. When the time comes for ourselves to think on our own we may be unable to do so.


Other Shakespeare Plays

• Taming of the shrew - another play by Shakespeare
○ A father has 2 daughters, the elder is a shrew (pursued by none) and the younger is pursued by many men.
○ The younger cannot marry until after the older marries
○ A rogue comes to get the dowry (property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage) by marrying the elder
○ Purtrukio maries Kate (the shrew) and treats her terribly, but she sees a spark of kindness, Kate starts to understand what a marital relationship is, it's based on kindness.
• Othello
○ Begins as a comedy and ends as a tragedy
○ Lies, distrust, 4 deaths
○ Othello wants to marry Desdemona, he is black and her father doesn’t want them to get married.
○ Othello's Lieutenant tells him lies and Othello kills his wife in bed. He later finds out that her infidelity was a lie and he commits suicide b/c of what he's done.
• Merchant of Venice
○ Begins as a comedy and has a tragedy built inside
○ Antonio has obtained a loan for his friend and given as a surety, one pound of his own flesh
○ The loan defaults b/c of shipwrecks, the loaner (shylock) insists on payment of the pound of flesh
○ A court is held to determine whether punishment is authorized
The judge is Antonio's friend's sweetheart in disguise, and gives the loaner a bag of other flesh or something.


Be able to discuss several additional Shakespearean plays, especially illustrating how Shakespeare used and changed the genres of comedy and tragedy.

Comedies are supposed to involve a romance that ends happily ever after. Tragedies end with everyone dying. Shakespeare mixed the 2 genres by starting them as a comedy, but they end w/ everyone dying like a tragedy.


Be able to discuss how the Bible has contributed to forming the modern English language.

When William Tyndale tried to first translate the bible it was illegal. But when he did it was a big contribution to the English Language.



lived under the reign of Elizabeth and King James.  Joined "The Chamberlain's Men" an acting group in England.  Became King Jame's choice actors and called them "Kingsmen".  Built the Globe theatre in London.


Ophelia Syndrome

she listened to advice from 3 different sources: hamlet (lover), Laertes (brother), and Polonius (father).  Her father told her to act as a baby and she did so and betrayed Hamlet.  She went crazy when Hamlet left and committed suicide.  Ophelia syndrome in the University is when students copy exactly what they learn and don't form their own opinions and can't think on their own.


steps for overcoming the Ophelia syndrome in school

Seek to learn from great teachers regardless of the subject, dare to know and trust yourself, learn to live w/ uncertainty, look for alternatives, foster idle thinking, BE CREATIVE.


Comedy considered by Shakespeare

lovers who cannot be together for external reasons, it's funny, and then they end up happily ever after. 


Tragedy considered by shakespeare

follows the struggle of an honorable person, we see the person grow and sometimes take poor paths, their flaws overcome them and they die.  


What does Hamlet do to convince himself that the ghost was telling the truth and that Claudius is guilty of the murder of Hamlet’s father?

Hamlet has an acting troupe perform a scene that is similar to what he believes happened to his father and he watches Claudius’ reaction.


What advice does Polonius give to his daughter Ophelia in regards to Hamlet that turns out to be tragic and leads to her eventual suicide?

Polonius tells Ophelia to “think herself a baby” and let him make her decisions for her.


Hamlet kills the person who is hiding behind the arras (curtain) in his mother’s bedroom. Who does he kill?



Which of the following artists of the Northern Renaissance was famous for both painting and detailed woodcarvings?

Albrecht Dürer.


In Thomas More’s Utopia, what is the punishment for committing adultery a second time?.



In Hamlet, who are Rosencrantz and Guildenstern?

They are two of Hamlet’s friends who are paid off by King Claudius to spy on him and betray him.


Be able to discuss the history and influences of the Hapsburg family.

Most powerful ruling family in European history. "AEIOU" meaning "all the world is subject to Austria" which they owned. They conquered through marriage and conquered lots of countries.


Understand the origins and development of the Thirty Years’ War.

Started b/c of the defenestration of Prague, then the Catholics and protestants started a war. But the war started to turn political, some Cardinals (such as Richelieu) joined the protestant side for political reasons. Ended w/ the Peace of Westphalia.


Be able to discuss the positions and influences of Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin.

Cardinal Richelieu - Worked for King Louis XIII in France but led everything, had a Machiavellian political mind, although catholic, he supported the protestants in the 30 years war for political reasons. Tore down city walls to allow easy access of his troops. Doubled tax revenues in France. He trained a Protégé Jules Mazarin. One of Europe's most creative leaders


Be able to discuss how Louis XIV gained his power over the French nobility and the people of France.

He was very powerful and influential. He hired a group of advisors to help him, but not too many or smart that they could control him. He ignored them just as much as heeded their advice. Would say "I am the state."


Be able to discuss the consequences of the reign of Louis XIV.

Lost France lots of money b/c of high spending, high spending on wars, and building the palace of Versailles. He strengthened the French monarchy to a degree his successors were incapable of sustaining. Gained territory in Europe but lost territory in the new world. eliminated Protestant presence and influence for the most part in France. He gave France a good name b/c of his rule. Many other European rulers tried to mimic his well established monarchial rule.


Defenestration of Prague

in Bohemia, the catholic officials forced construction to stop on several protestant churches. So a Protestant assembly stormed Prague castle and hurled 2 of the emperor's officials from a window in the castle. This started fights amongst the religions and started the 30 years war.


Peace of Westphalia

a treaty signed to end the 30 years war


Henry II

last strong Valois king in France


Francis II

son of Henry II, ruled France for 2 years, was dominated by his mother Catherine de Medici


Charles IX

Henry II's brother, next ruler of France, was also dominated by his mother Catherine de Medici


Catherine de Medici

pretty much ruled France b/c her 3 sons Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III were kings in France and she controlled them


Henry IV

Ruler of France after Henry III, from the Bourbon dynasty changed from protestant to catholic to gain the throne. He was called "good king Henry". Issued Edict of Nantes. Started industries to produce high demand goods. Gave "how to" handbooks to peasants. His son Louis XIII was king next


Edict of Nantes

Called for religious Toleration and equal treatment for Catholic's and protestants in France. Issued by Good King Henry IV


King Louis XIII

ruler of France after his Father Henry IV, was weak and ineffective so his Principal advisor Cardinal Richelieu who led everything.


Cardinal Richelieu

Worked for King Louis XIII in France but led everything, had a Machiavellian political mind, although catholic, he supported the protestants in the 30 years war for political reasons. Tore down city walls to allow easy access of his troops. Doubled tax revenues in France. He trained a Protégé Jules Mazarin. One of Europe's most creative leaders


Jules Mazarin

Cardinal in France after Richelieu that influenced King Louis XIII


King Louis XIV

strongest ruler in France. Creatively made warfare more intelligent by: standardization of weapons, uniforms, people to feed troops, recruiting discipline, training and promotion. Would say "I am the state." His Reign became the Golden Age for France, and he was the Sun King. Built the palace of Versailles. He actually achieved absolute power. France lost lots of money under him b/c of high spending.


King Phillip II

king of Spain, screwed Spain over and had bad luck, led Spanish armada against England which lost. Spanish economic troubles b/c of corruption of taxation, refused to invest money or run industries. Spain had revolts in Catalonia b/c they wanted to break off. Portugal regained their independence from Spain.


War of Spanish succession - 1701 - 1714

Couldn’t decide next king, so many people fought for the position. Ended with Treaty of Utrecht


Treaty of Utrecht

ended the war of Spanish succession. Agreed that the next king could not rule both France and Spain. Phillip V was crowned king.


Phillip V

crowned king of Spain after war of Spanish Succession.


Diego Velazquez

a Spanish painter who painted "the Surrender of Breda." This depicts the Dutch mayor of Breda handing over the key to the city to the Victorious Spanish General the Duke of Alva. This is the painting w/ the horse butt.


Duke of Alva

a Spanish General under King Phillip II that led the war against the Dutch when the Dutch tried to gain independence. He gave 1,000 men the death sentence. Was extremely cruel. The Dutch finally gained independence after the 30 years war in 1648.


William the Silent

the prince of the Dutch Republic. A unique government that had less monarchal control. The Dutch established a trading company and became extremely wealthy.



a Painter in the Netherlands during the Baroque Period. Painted "The Night Watch," Soldiers paid him to be painted in this painting.


Prince Frederic William

King of the Netherlands in 1814


James I (stuart)

king of England after his aunt Elizabeth. He was also ruler of Scotland. Wanted dictatorship and was very unpopular. Instituted royal monopolies to earn money. His son Charles I was next


Charles I (stuart)

King of England after his father James I. Had his father's problems of dictatorial, absolutist attitude and was also extremely unpopular. Dismissed parliament for 11 years cause they wouldn't institute taxes for him. B/c he was broke, he imposed huge fines on the public. There was a new law that made him allow parliament to meet once every 3 years.


Long Parliament

the period under Charles I in England that Parliament met once every 3 years for 20 years (1640 - 1660)


English Civil war

1642 - 1649. Oliver Cromwell led the rebel "Roundheads" against Charles I who led the Cavaliers. Charles I was beheaded. England was then declared a commonwealth.


Oliver Cromwell

led the Roundheads in the English civil war against Charles I. Started the commonwealth there, but soon turned into a dictatorship and was given the title "Lord Protector." This started "the Protectorate" period. Had opportunities to move to a democratic system but was uncreative and was unwilling to do so. Led for 3 years.


Richard Cromwell

Son of Oliver Cromwell. Led England for a 9 months and resigned for the good of England. Charles II (son of Charles I) was then invited to be the king of England.


Charles II

King of England (son of Charles I) but came after the Cromwells. He agreed to Parliaments terms of limited power. The return of this monarchy was called the "Restoration."


King James II

King of England after his Father Charles II. He was extremely unpopular and tried to reinstate Catholicism into England. His protestant Daughter, was invited by Parliament to assume the throne in England. James II was forced to "escape" into exile in France.


King William and Queen Mary

King and Queen of England after King James II. William was a stadtholder in the Dutch republic. This started the "Glorious Revolution." This was a true limited monarchy. Signed the English Bill of Rights.


Battle of the Boyne

battle where James II fought against king William and Queen Mary of England to regain the throne. King William and Queen Mary won.


The English Bill of Rights

Outlined the rights of the English people and clarified the relationship between monarchy and the Parliament. Gave right to the citizens to Bare arms, the king could not have standing army, king could not fire judges without real reason, freedom of worship (but English Monarch had to be protestant). This established the basis of the modern government of the United Kingdom.



When the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V) divided his kingdom, he gave the Austrian part w/ German possessions to his brother Ferdinand.


Czar Ivan IV, The Terrible

the first great absolute ruler of Russia. From the Late 1500s. By Terrible they meant Awesome. He expanded Russia's Territories, but didn't focus on Europe.


Czar Peter I, The Great

the 2nd great Russian Absolutist ruled from 1682 - 1725. Shifted Russia's culture to be more European b/c they were falling behind. He ways very influential. He took over a piece of Sweden in order to have a trade port w/ the rest of Europe. Moved the Capital to St. Petersburg and had people wear European clothing.


Be able to explain some of the unique features of the Dutch Republic.

They had a republic since neither the ruler or the king wanted absolute power as apposed to the powerful monarchs at the time. They became extremely wealthy through trade and the people were very prosperous. Calvinism taught that they should live humbly so they did so and did not spend poorly.


Understand the position of the Stuart family with respect to absolutism.

James I and Charles I of England after Queen Elizabeth. They were absolute monarchs, and many of them led to horrible economic decline b/c of what they did. Super bossy and unpopular.


Be able to discuss the events that led to the English Civil War and the consequences of the war leading to the death of Charles I, the assumption of power of Oliver Cromwell, and the return of Charles II.

Charles I was also the ruler of Scotland and they felt that they were being ignored by Charles I. So there was a Scottish rebellion. This led to the English Civil war. Charles I was beheaded, and England turned into a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell. He and the Roundheads fought against Charles I and the Cavaliers in the English Civil war. But Cromwell soon abused his power and turned it into a dictatorship and was given the title "Lord protector." This started the Protectorate period. He led for 3 years. Then Cromwell's son, Richard Cromwell, led after but was a weak leader so he resigned and Charles II of France became king but with limited power and was subject to the rule of Parliament.


Be able to discuss the Glorious Revolution and the reign of William and Mary.

William married Mary and together they ruled England and Holland. James II of France tried to defeat William but they fought in the Battle of Boyne in Ireland where William won w/ his protestant army. William and Mary's period is called the Glorious Revolution b/c it was a true limited monarchy, and the English Bill of Rights was signed which drew the line between monarchy and parliament. This also gave the citizens rights, and the ruler limited rights. This established the basis for the modern gov in the UK.


Be able to discuss the need for Parliament to select George I as king of England.

After William came queen Anne, after her came her cousin George I. B/c Anne died w/out an heir. Pretty confused about what exactly happened. But Anne ruled Scotland and England and they had different succession laws. So parliament had to choose the cousin as apposed to this other heir that was supposed to rule England after Anne.


Discuss the general characteristics of the Baroque style and the influences that created this style.

People really wanted to impress, so the style was very elaborate and exaggerated.


Relate the general plot of Cervantes’ Don Quixote

Don Quixote - the first novel, it was about a guy narrating a story about a man named Quixote that reads tons of books about knights and decides to become one (and changes his name) even though the books are fictional. He finds another guy, Sancho Panza, to go with him and he is delusional in thinking he is a good knight. He even sees windmills and think they're giants so he starts attacking them. A guy from the palace where Quixote lives dresses up as a sword fighter and fights Quixote, and defeats him, and convinces him that he should return home and give up being a knight. Quixote does, changes his name back to his original name, and dies there eventually. This book blends reality from fiction.


Relate the general plot of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

Paradise lost - an epic poem all about Adam and Eve's expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Shows a lot of Satan's perspective of getting kicked out of heaven for rebellion and wanting all of the glory for himself. As revenge Satan makes a plan to get Adam and Eve kicked out of the Garden and succeeds


Identify and comment on Baroque architecture.

The period prior to Baroque was renaissance. Renaissance architecture is a lot more plain, classic, and uses geometrical shapes. Baroquean style is much more elaborate and has a lot going on.
Early baroque - has more elaboration, with curves and such
Late baroque - has even more elaborate behavior and complexity, but it is still symmetrical
Another famous architectural work was St. Peter's square (by Bernini) right in front of St. Peter's catholic chapel. It was designed with curves welcoming the people back to Catholicism. Very baroque style.
St. Paul's cathedral is also baroque style


4. Discuss the features of Bernini’s sculpture and why it is typical of the Baroque period.

He did many sculptures such as "ecstasy of St. Teresa," "David," "Apollo and Daphne", "The Fountain in the Piazza Novona." In this sculptures their facial expressions are very dramatic. The artwork is very dynamic meaning each sculpture looks like it is in movement. The sculpting was very complex and complex.


Discuss the paintings of Velazquez, Rembrandt, and Rubens, and identify features in their art that is typical of the Baroque style.

Velazquez - Painted "Las Meninas." Uses techniques for perspective. Uses Dramatic depth using light and dark colors and shadows. Also Painted "The Surrender of Breda." Uses a blue/grey background, depicts the duke of Spain ending a battle.
Rembrandt - Painted "Night Watch" and "The Return of the Prodigal Son." - Used great perspective in the paintings. Soldiers paid to be depicted in the Night Watch. The colors get very dark in the back to show perspective.
Rubens - Painted "Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus" and "Henri IV Receiving the portrait of Marie De Medici." High emotions depicted on the faces of the characters in the paintings.


Discuss the music of Bach and Handel in light of their presence and contributions to the Baroque period.

Handel and Bach came from very different backgrounds. Handel was always wealthy and famous, Bach was poor and wasn’t very famous until after his death. Both composed very religious pieces. Bach's music was "too difficult to play" which shows how elaborate it was and Baroquean.


Gianlorenzo Bernini

Sculpture during this period. Works: St. Peter's church (Vatican), David, the Rape of Proserpina, Daphne and Apollo, Aeneas.


Christopher Wren

architect of England. Grandest building he designed was St. Paul's in London.



painted several commissions in Rome. Painted "The Supper at Emmaus," "The calling of Saint Matthew" "David with the head of Goliath." Had a bad temper, stabbed a guy in a tennis match, fled to Naples, went to jail for fighting a police officer, escaped prison, and continued his life like this until death. Techniques - foreshortening (David is holding goliath's head toward the viewer), chiaroscuro, grotesque.


Artemisia Gentileschi

Artemisia was a woman painter at the time. She was a rape victim in her youth while working in her father's art studio, and he said "well you're a woman in a man's profession." She painted "Judith and Holofernes."


Domenikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco)

painter from Spain. Painted "burial of the Count of Orgaz"


Diego Velazquez

Spanish Baroque artist, painted "Las Meninas". Showed good perspective, dramatic depth, light and dark, shadows which are all baroquean techniques.


Peter Paul Rubens

painted "Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus" and "Henri IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie De Medici." shows lots of facial emotions in these paintings.



painted "Night Watch" - Men paid a lot to have themselves in the painting, they paid more to be in the front center. He had great perspective in his paintings. Also painted "The Return of the Prodigal Son" There is a book about this painting. About his identification with the father, the brother, and also the son


Baroque Music

Invention of Opera, used Homophony (main melody supported by harmony), development of the orchestra (purely instrumental music), new forms of vocal music, new musical instruments, Temperament (fixing the harmonies by stretching each octave by .027)



instrumental Baroque polyphonic music form. Multiple instruments playing together.



instrumental Baroque music form with 2 melodies introduced and intermixed.



instrumental Baroque music form, one or more solo instruments with orchestra backing it.


Amati Stradivari, and Guarneri

Violin makers from the Baroque period. No better violins have been made.



the 1st big popular opera, by Claudio Monteverdi


Antonio Vivaldi

famous italian baroque composer. Born after Monteverdi's death. Composed the opera "The Four Seasons" and wrote a poem to go along with it at the end b/c it was purely instrumental.


George Frederick Handel

German Baroque composer. Received no support from his family. Composed "Watermusic" for King George I in England to please him b/c Handel bailed on him in Germany, and then George became the king of England where Handel bailed to. Started to perform Oratorios and composed "the Messiah" his first oratorio. This was one of the greated oratorios ever written.


Johann Sebastian Bach

German Baraque composer. Music was "too difficult to play." Protestant. Produced over 1000 pieces. Wrote "The Well Tempered Clavier." Died in 1750, people use this date to mark the end of the Baroque period.


Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)

Spanish writer. Invented the Novel genre of writing. Wrote "Don Quixote de la Mancha," about a man who loved knighthood and became a knight and reestablished chivalry to the countryside of La Mancha.


John Milton

English writer. Wrote the epic poem "Paradise Lost." the epic poem is about Adam and Eve. went blind and had his wives write this book while he dictated it.


John Bunyan (1628 - 1688)

a minister who wrote the book "Pilgrim's Progress." This book is written in prose (ordinary language).


Daniel Defoe (1660 - 1731)

Author of secular works, most famous was "Robinson Crusoe."


Don Quixote de la Mancha

first novel, written by Miguel de Cervantes


What was the name of the group that won the English Civil War?



Which of the following things was the starting point of the actual fighting in the Thirty Years War?

The Defenestration of Prague.


In Paradise Lost, Satan says it is better to reign in Hell, than ______________________

Serve in Heaven.


According to Sancho Panza, why can’t Don Quixote see the beauty of Dulcinea?

Because a spell has been cast by an enchanter so that Don Quixote sees only a hard-looking country wench.


What is the Glorious Revolution?

When William and Mary were invited to come over from Holland and become the rulers of England. It was a bloodless original takeover and the start of true constitutional monarchy in England.


Which of the following nations did NOT fight for the Protestant side during the Thirty Years War?



Which of the following nations did fight for the Protestant side during the Thirty Years War?





Why does Don Quixote attack the windmills?

Don Quixote attacks the windmills because he thinks they are giants.


Which Russian ruler was instrumental in opening up Russia to western thought and European culture?

Peter the Great.


Which of the following artists was the first woman to become famous as a painter?

Artemisia Gentileschi.