Bio 4: Respiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 4: Respiration Deck (22):
1

Energy

The ability to do work

2

ATP

Phosphorylated nucleotide and is the universal energy currency. It can be hydrolysed to make ADP + P. It releases 30.6 kJ of energy per mol.

3

Anabolic

Biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones

4

Catabolic

In these reactions, larger molecules are hydrolysed to produce smaller molecules

5

Oxidation

Reactions involve loss of elections

6

Reduction

Reactions involving addition of electrons

7

NAD

Organic non protein
Two nucleotides, two ribose, two phosphate
It can accept two hydrogens with their electrons

8

Coenzyme A

Adenine and ribose
Three phosphates
Pantothenic acid
Small cysteamine group

9

Glycolysis

Metabolic pathway where each glucose molecule is broken down. Occurs into cytoplasm

Glucose
Glucose 6-phosphate
Hexose 1,6-bisphosphate
2x Triose phosphate
2x pyruvate

Net products:
2 ATP molecules (2 were used)
2 redNAD

10

Mitochondria

Two membranes making an envelope
Inner membrane is folded into cristae
Between is the inter membrane space
Matrix is enclosed by the inner membrane
2-5um long

11

Electron carrier

Each one is an enzyme, each has a cofactor
The cofactors donate and accept electrons
Some have them coenzymes that pump protons across the membrane into the intermembrane space

12

Link reaction

Pyruvate gets hydrogens removed from then, by pyruvate dehydrogenase. And a carboxyl group
NAD accepts H
Coenzyme A accepts acetate, becomes acetyl coenzyme A

13

Krebs cycle

In the matrix
Acetyl CoA joins oxaloacetate = Citric acid
Coenzyme A released
Citrate is decarboxylated and dehydrogenated forms 5C ( 2H accepted by NAD )
5C decarboxylated and dehydrogenated forms 4C (2H accepted by NAD)
4C to 4C (ATP formed)
4C to 4C ( 2H accepted by FAD)
4C dehydrogenated to oxaloacetate

2 turns per glucose
redNAD: 6
redFAD: 2
CO2: 4
ATP: 2

14

Oxidative phosphorylation

Formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP in the presence of oxygen, the final electron acceptor.

15

ATP > 30

Protons leak across mitochondrial membrane
Used to actively transport pyruvate
Used to bring H from redNAD into mitochondria

16

Chemiosmosis

Diffusion of ions through a partially permeable membrane. This relates to the flow of protons across the membrane, coupled with the generation of ATP

17

Lactate fermentation

Pyruvate goes to lactate
Lactate dehydrogenase
redNAD - 2H = NAD

18

Alcohol fermentation

Pyruvate - CO2 (pyruvate dehydrogenase)
Ethanal (redNAD+2H = NAD)
Ethanol

19

Respiratory substrate

Organic substance that can be used for respiration

20

RS: Carbohydrate

15.8 kJ/g mean energy value

21

RS: Protein

17.0 kJ/g mean energy value
Muscle from protein is hydrolysed
Only aerobically

22

RS: Lipids

39.4 kJ/g mean energy value
Triglycerides are hydrolysed by lipase to fatty acids and glycerol. Glycerol is converted to glucose.
Only aerobically