Bio 5: Responding to the environment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 5: Responding to the environment Deck (63):
1

Tropism

Directional growth response in which the direct if the response is determined by the direction of the external stimulus

2

Plant growth regulators

Travel by active transport, diffusion, mass flow in phloem sap, or xylem vessels

3

Auxin

Promote: cell elongation
Increase wall stretchiness, hydrogen ion into cell wall promoted, lowers pH, expansins loosen walls, making them less rigid, allows water to expand.
Inhibit: growth of side shoots, leaf abscission

4

Cytokinins

Promote: cell division
Inhibits: senescence

5

Gibberellins

Promote: seed germination, growth of stems

6

Abscisic acid

Promotes: stomatal closure when stressed
Inhibits: seed germination and growth

7

Ethene

Promotes: fruit ripening

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Apical meristems

Located at tips or apices of roots and shoots

9

Lateral bud meristems

Found in buds, give rise to side shoots

10

Lateral meristems

Found in a cyclinder near the outside of roots and shoots, responsible for widening

11

Intercalary meristems

Located between nodes

12

Apical dominance

Breaking the apex of a plant off, it starts to grow side branches from the lateral buds.
Abscisic acid inhibits bud growth, high auxin keeps abscisic acid high, when cut off auxin drops, and so does abscsic acid, Buds grow
Cytokinins promote bud growth, auxin makes shoot a sink, causing it all to go there, no auxin, spreads cytokinins more evenly.

13

Commercial uses: Auxins

-Encourages root growth
-Treating unpollinated plants can cause growth of seedless fruit
-Herbicides to kill weeds

14

Commercial uses: Gibberellins

-Delay senescence in citrus, extending life
-Elongate apples
-Grows grape stalks, allowing bigger grapes
-Speeds up starch into maltose for beer

15

Commercial uses: Cytokinins

-Delay senescence in leaves
-Tissue culture for mass production

16

Commercial uses: Ethene

-Speed up ripening
-Promotes fruit drop

17

Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain. Responsible for thought, imagination and reasoning.

18

Cerebellum

Controls coordination of movement and posture

19

Hypothalamus

Controls the autonomic nervous system and endocrine glands

20

Medulla oblongata

Controls the action of the smooth muscle in the gut wall and controls breathing movements and heart rate.

21

Motor area

Involved in planning, control and executing voluntary movements

22

Sensory area

Any sensory process, for example touch or sight

23

Parietal lobe

One of four major lobes. Controls skin sensory (pain, temperature and touch)

24

Occipital lobe

One of four major lobes. Visual processing centre

25

Wernicke's area

Area in the left hemisphere of the temporal lobe, which is involved in speak comprehension

26

Broca's area

Region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere and is linked with speech production

27

Temporal lobe

One of four major lobes. Language comprehension, emotional responses and visual memories

28

Frontal lobe

One of four major lobes. Voluntary movement, predicting, consequences, good and bad , and similarities and differences.

29

Limbic system

Involved with instinct and mood. Controls basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring)

30

Somatic nervous system

Somatic motor neurones carry impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscle, which are under voluntary control.
Most are myelinated.

31

Autonomic nervous system

Autonomic motor neurones carry impulses from the CNS to the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle in the gut and glands. This is involuntary.
Most aren't myelinated.
Parasympathetic and sympathetic.

32

Parasympathetic

Most active in sleep and relaxation
Linked with ganglion with target tissue, vary in length
Post ganglionic neurones secrete acetylcholine
Effects: decreased heart rate, pupil constriction, decreased ventilation rate, sexual arousal

33

Sympathetic

Most active in times of stress
Linked with ganglion outside spinal cord, very short
Post ganglionic neurones secrete noradrenaline
Effects: increased heart rate, pupil dilation, increased ventilation, orgasm

34

Antagonistic pairs

Muscles working in pairs opposite to each other

35

Cartiliage

Pads where bones meet reduce friction as bones move

36

Synovial membrane

Produces synovial fluid

37

Synovial fluid

Lubricates the joint

38

Ligament

Holds bones together to prevent dislocation

39

Neuromuscular junction

Specialised synapse between the end of the motor neurone and the muscle fibre membrane adjacent to it

40

Myosin

The protein that forms the thick filament in muscle cells. This protein has head groups that form the cross bridges associated with muscular contraction

41

Actin

A protein found in muscle cells. It is the main component of the thin filaments.
Tropomyosin coils around actin, reinforcing it.
Troponin attaches to Tropomyosin.

42

Smooth muscle

Autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
-Wall of intestines: peristalsis (moves food along intestine)
-Iris of the eye: Controls light entering eye
-Walls of arterioles, uterus: regulation of blood pressure

43

Cardiac muscle

Atrial muscle, ventricular muscle and specialised excitatory and conductive muscle.
Made of made individual cells collected in rows, intercalated discs, action potentials and ions diffuse easily

44

Skeletal muscle

Muscle cells form fibres of around 100um in diameter, with several nuclei. Each fibre is surrounded by sarcolemma, a cell surface membrane.
It has many mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, number of myofibrils

45

Troponin

Three polypeptides
-One binds to actin
-One binds to tropomyosin
-One binds to calcium ions

46

Power stroke

-myosin head attaches to actin forming a cross bridge
-head group bends, causing thin filament to be pulled. ADP and P are released
-Cross bridge is broken, ATP attaches to myosin head
-Head moves backwards as ATP is hydrolysed to ADP and P. Now it can repeat along.

47

Calcium and muscles

Action potential arrives.
Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Diffuse through sarcoplas, bind with troponin
Changes troponins shape, moving tropomyosin away from binding site.
Allows a cross bridge to form

48

Maintenance of ATP

-Aerobic respiration in muscle cells
-Anaerobic respiration in muscle sarcoplasm
-Transfer from creatine phosphate, phosphate group can be used

49

Fight or flight

-Pupils dilate
-heart rate and blood pressure increase
-Arterioles to digestive system and skin constrict
-Arterioles to muscle and liver dilate
-Blood glucose conc increases
-Metabolic rate increases
-Endorphins released

50

Innate behaviours

-Genetically determined
-Passed onto offspring
-Rigid and inflexible
-Patterns of behaviour are the same
-Unintelligent, organism has no sense of behaviour

51

Learned behaviours

-Determined by relationship between environment and organism
-Not passed onto offspring
-Can be altered
-Variety
-Intelligent

52

Reflexes

Escape reflexes, are involuntary and follows a pattern following a stimulus

53

Kinesis

Orientation based behaviour where the rate of movement increases when an organism is in unfavourable conditions. Non-directional

54

Taxis

Directional orientation behaviour. Direction of movement is in relation to the stimulus. Positive is towards the stimulus, and negative is away.

55

Fixed action pattern

A stimulus is required to initiate an instinctive behavioural response. This leads to mechanisms within the brain which makes a fixed action pattern.

56

Habituation

Animals learn to ignore certain stimuli because repeated exposure has resulted in neither a reward or punishment.

57

Imprinting

Young animals become associated with on another organism - usually the parent

58

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. There are three stages of classical conditioning.

59

Operant conditioning

Using reward and punishment to create associations between things.

60

Latent learning

Explore surrounding and retain information

61

Insight learning

Based on ability to think and reason in order to solve problems. This is not based on any reflex.

62

Dopamine

Neurotransmitter and hormone
Increases arousal
Decrease inhibition
Five receptors DRD1-5 (coded by a separate gene)

63

DRD4

50+ variants of DRD4
Particular variant of DRD4 common in ADHD sufferers
Variant in those with more risky behaviour eg smoking and gambling