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Flashcards in Bio Lab Exam Deck (72):
1

Alternative Hypothesis example

Suzy hypothesizes that plants watered with club soda with grow faster than plants watered with regular water

I’m going to win more than $1000

2

Null hypothesis example

There is no statistical significant relationship between the type of water I feed the flowers and growth of the flowers

I am going to win up to $1000

3

Variable

Any factor that might affect outcome of the experiment

4

Independent variable

The experimenter manipulates this

Age

5

Dependant variable

Experiments observes effects of the independent variable on the dependant variable

Height

6

Control

Specimen under normal conditions

Trees getting H2O opposed to soda water

7

Repeatable

Can allow for procedure to be done again and attain similar results

8

5 stage of mitosis

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telephase

9

Interphase

Cells increase in mass

Cell organelles are duplicated (mitochondria, ribosomes, ER)

DNA duplicated: consists of two sister chromarids and considered one DNA

10

Mitosis prophase

Chromosomes condense and become visible

Spindle apparatus begins to form

11

Mitosis metaphase

Chromosomes align themselves in a line called a metaphase plate

12

Mitosis anaphase

Sister chromatids spit and travel towards separate ends

Each chromatid is seen as a full chromosome

13

Mitosis telephase

Chromosomes arrive at different ends

New nuclear membranes are formed round chromosomes

Cytokinesis or cell division begins

14

8 phases of meiosis

Prophase 1
Metaphase 1
Anaphase 1
Telophase 1
Prophase 2
Metaphase 2
Anaphase 2
Telophase 2

15

Prophase 1

Chromosomes condense and become visible

Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear

Homologous chromosomes align; called synapsis

Cross over and exchange of material between homologous pairs

16

Metaphase 1

Chromosomes and their homologues align themselves in a line

Called metaphase plate

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Anaphase 1

Homologous pairs seperate and travel to their ends

18

Telophase 1

Chromosomes arrive at ends

Spindle apparatus dissembles

New nuclear membrane may form

Cytokinesis or cell division may begin

19

Prophase 2

Nuclear membrane and nucleolus may disappear

Spindle appararus begins to form

20

Metaphase 2

Chromosomes align themselves at Center on metaphase plate

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Anaphase 2

Sister chromatids spilt and travel to opposite ends

CELLS BECOME HAPLOID

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Telophase 2

Chrimosomes arrive at ends now

Spindle apppartus begins to dissemble

New nuclear membraned are formed and chromosomes uncoil

CELLS HAPLOID

23

Binary fission

Process when bacteria or prokaryotic replicates their DNA

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Recessive trait

Can be carried in a persons genes without appearing in that person

A blonde hair person having a black hair gene but not having black hair

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Dominant trait

Inherited characteristic that appears in an offspring if it is contributed from a parent through a dominant Allele

26

Dominant vs recessive genes

A dominant allele is always seen

A recessive gene is not always scene but still in its genetics

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Pedigree

A diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of particular genes from generation to generation

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Dominant gene in pedigree

Shows in every generation

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Recessive gene in pedigree

Skips a generation

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Phylum Porifera

Sponges

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Phylum Anthropoda

Grasshopper

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Phylum Cnidaria

Jellyfish

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Phylum Echinodermata

Sea star

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Phylum Platyhelminthes

Tapeworm

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Phylum Chordata

Humans

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Phylum Mollusca

Squid

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Phylum Annelida

Segmented worms

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Phylum Nemotoda

Roundworms

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The 9 Phylums we looked at

Porifera
Anthropoda
Cnidaria
Echinodermata
Platyhelminthes
Chordata
Mollusca
Annelida
Nemotoda

40

3 types of symmetry

Asymmetrical
Radial
Bilateral

41

Asymmetry

Body has no fixed shape

Snail

42

Radial symmetry

Like a starfish

43

Bilateral symmetry

Fold it in half and he the same
Human

44

Encephalization

Does it have a brain

45

Reproduction

Either can be sexual or asexual or both

46

Excretion

Has it or not

47

Circulation

Is there blood running through them

Either open or closed

48

Body segmentation

Different parts of body

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Appendages

Legs? Body part used for locomotion

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Digestion

1 way digestion: food through mouth than anus

2 way digestion: through mouth out of mouth

51

Respiration

Body has gills or lungs?

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Osmoregulation

Osmotic pressure to control water

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Animal with one way digestion

Humans

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Animal with two way digestion

Tapeworm

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Open vs closed circulatory system

Closed: blood closed at all times in vessels. Blood is pumped to heart

Open: blood is pumped into body cavaties, no vessels

56

3 types of plankton

Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, bacterioplankton

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Phytoplankton

include algae, photosynthetic protists and cyanbateria.

Primary producers

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Zooplankton

Eat phytoplankton

considered secondary consumers

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Bacterioplankton

bacteria

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Species richness

Number of different species in a community

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Eveness

how many individuals there are in each species

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Shannon index favours

Rarer species

63

Simpsons index favours

dominant species

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How can starfish eat food larger than themselves?

Because of this ability to digest food outside the body, starfish can hunt prey much larger than their mouths.

65

Two things for a successful hypothesis

A hypothesis is a statement, not a question
It is testable

66

Differences between mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis: 1 round of divisions, diploid, 2 identical daughter cells

Meiosis: 2 rounds of division, results in gametes, goes through the stages twice, haploid, 4 non identical twins

67

Similarities between mitosis and meiosis

Way for cells to divide

Same four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

68

Similarities between earthworm and fish

bilateral, sexual, 1 way digestion

69

differences between earthworm and fish

fish has gills, fish has appendages, worm has no body segmentations

70

Hole in grasshopper abdomen

ovipositer

71

Meiosis microscope

Metaphase

72

Mitosis microscope

perhaps telephase