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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Main Deck (89):
1

____ and _____ are related

Water and temperature

2

Increased temperature means

Higher rates of a water loss

3

Humans cool by

Sweat, we drink lots of water

4

Most organisms consist of how much water

50-90%

5

Water relations

How organisms maintain water balence

6

Concentration gradient

Low to high solute concentration

Water has a tendency to move down concentration gradients!!!

7

Water potential

Waters potential energy or its ability to do work

Eg. River water has high energy

8

Evapotranspiration

Moves water up from the soil into the crown of tree

9

Water regulation by terrestrial animals

Wi + Wd + Wf + Wa - We - Ws

10

Terrestrial animals water regulation meanings

Wd: taken by drinking
Wf: taken in with food
Wa: water absorbed from air
We: water loss from evaporation
Ws: waterless loss with various secretions and excretions

11

Water acquisition by animals

Oxidation of glucose

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O

12

Water acquisition by plants

Through roots! Longer the roots, more water they’re trynna get

13

Water use efficiency

Biomass of plant tissue produced per gram of water used

14

How to get water from food

Metabolism! Break down into sugar molecules

15

Energy

Light, organic molecules, or inorganic molecules

16

Nutrients

Raw material needed to build the organic and inorganic components critical to life

17

Phylogeny

Grouping organisms based on their similarities

18

Autotrophs

“Self feeders”

Use inorganic sources of both carbon and energy

19

2 types of autotrophs

Photosynthetic and chemosynthetix

20

Photosynthetic autotroph

Use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon and solar radiation in the form of light as a source of energy

21

Trophic

Means of organisms obtaining energy

22

Chemosynthetic autotrophs

Use inorganic molecules as a source of carbon and energy

23

Heterotrophs

“Other feeders”. Organisms use organic molecules as a source of carbon and as a energy source

Bacteria, fungus, parasites

24

Photoheterotrophs

Use light energy to produce ATP

25

Heterotrophs include

Bacteria, fungi, and animals

26

Prokaryotes

Show more trophies diversity then the other major biological groupings (single cell, no organelles)

27

Archea

Look like bacteria. But aren’t. Have different genetics

28

All fungi and animals are

Heretotrophic

29

Photosynthesis

Solar powered biosphere

30

Photons

Particles of light, bear a finite quantity of energy

31

Longer wavelengths

Infrared light

Carry less energy then shorter wavelengths

32

Visible light, better known as

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)

33

Photosynthetically active radiation makes up what percent of total energy content

45%

34

Photon flux density (PFD)

Number of photons striking a square meter surface each second

35

Light changes in quantity with:

Latitude, season, weather, time of day

36

ATP

Energy (stored as sugar, lipids, proteins)

37

Photosynthesis in two parts

Light and dark reaction

38

Carbon fixation

Autotrophs

39

C3 photo synthesis

C3 plants

40

C4 plants use

3 carbons opposed to 5 carbon molecules leading

41

Ethology

The study of behaviour (animals in environment)

42

Natural selection favours ______ that increase _______

Behaviours

Fitness

43

Complex behaviours have

Genetic basis and choice is not a sole determinant

44

Some behaviours are more ______ than others

Adaptive

45

Adaptive value of a given trait is _______ common in the ____________

More

Specific environmental conditions

46

Inclusive fitness

Fitness is determined by individual survival and reproduction

47

Kin selection

Selecting behaviours leading to inclusive behaviour

48

Donor

Performs actions to be accessed

49

Recipient

Recognizes the given behaviour

50

Cooperation

I benefit, so does someone else

51

Selfishness

I benefit, you don’t

52

Adaptionist

That all observed behaviours are inherently adaptive

53

Altruistic act

Benefits recipient, but harms donor

54

Group selection

Individuals may act counter to their own personal interest to better the rest

55

Kin selection can promote ______, ____% of genes from each other

Altruism

50

56

Manipulation

Laying eggs in someone else nest

57

Reciprocal altruism

Individuals do not have to be related to each other for altruism to be stable

58

Different species living ______ by _____ differ

Side by side

Coexistence

59

Species living side by side do what

Produce different size offspring

Lifetimes order by magnitude (some old some young)

Offspring may leave or live independently

60

For each species, there will be a limited set of ______ suitable for _____ and _______

Conditions

Growth

Reproduction

61

The principle of ______ is important in influencing how an ______ allocates _____ within a given segment of its energy budget

Allocation

Organism

Energy

62

Organisms cans only access so much ______, causing ______ in how they can be allocated between survival, ____ number, and offspring size

Energy

Trade offs

Offspring

63

Allometry

Study of scaling between body size and various biological factors, including shape, anatomy, physiology, and behaviour

64

______ will have a strong Influence on how an organism ______ energy

Body size

Allocates

65

Fecundity

Number of offspring produced by an organism

66

Gene flow

Avaibality to spread further

Seeds on a tree in wind

67

Desert shrubs root length

Up to 30 meters

68

Another way to balence water budget is to reduce water loss, how ?

Waterproofing, many animals and plants cover themselves with a fairly waterproof wax

69

Evil quartet

The immediate causes of species loss

70

Four points to the evil quartet

Over exploitation

Habitat loss

Competition with introduced species

Tropic dependency leading to cascading chains of extinction (higher up in food chain dependant on lower species leads to domino effect)

71

R

Represents population growth rate

72

K

Represents maximum sustainable size of population

73

Slow life histories

Reach sexual maturity later, breed infrequently in small number, have similar life history traits

74

Ruderals

Plants that live in highly disturbed habitats and may depend on disturbances to persist in the face of potential competition from other plants

75

Stress

Induced by environmental conditions that limit the growth of all or part of vegetation

76

Stress is the result of:

Extreme temperatures, too little or too much water, too little or too much nutrients

77

Competitive life history

Competitive plants occupy environments where disturbance intensity is low and stress is low

78

Niche

Home or house

2 specifies can’t occupy same niche

79

Fundemental niche

Reflects environmental requirements of species

80

Realized niche

Includes interactions with other species

81

Phenology

Study of timing of events in an organisms life

(when they are born, when leaves flush out)

82

Brood parasite

Female lays eggs in others birds nests

83

Sociality

Group living and cooperation

84

Eusociality

Generations of individuals live together

Cooperative care of young

Divisions of individuals into sterile, reproductive and nonreproductive

85

Caste

Individuals that engage in specialized behaviour in a colony

86

Manogomy

Regular relationships

87

Promiscuity

Multiple mates. Whore

88

Intrasexual selection

Compete for sex

89

Intersexual selection

Get sex cause you look good