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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (70)
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1

Name this amino acid

Glycine, gly, G

2

Name this amino acid

Alanine, Ala, A

3

Name this amino acid

Proline, Pro, P

4

Name this amino acid

Valine, val, v

5

Name the amino acid

Leucine, Leu, L

6

Name the amino acid

Isoleucine, Ile, I

7

Name the amino acid

methionine, Met, M

8

Name the amino acid

tryptophan, trp, W

9

Name the amino acid

Phenylalanine, Phe, F

10

Name the amino acid

serine, ser, S

11

Name the amino acid

Threonine, Thr, T

12

Name the amino acid

tyrosine, Tyr, Y

13

Name the amino acid

asparginine, Asn, N

14

Name the amino acid

Glutamine, Gln, Q

15

Name the amino acid

Cysteine, Cys, C

16

Name the amino acid

Lysine, Lys, K

17

Name the amino acid

arginine, Arg, R

18

Name the amino acid

histidine, Hist, H

19

Name the amino acid

Aspartic acid, Asp, D

20

Name the amino acid

Glutamate, Glu, E

21

List the polar amino acids

Serine, Threonine, tyrosine, asparginine, glutamine, cysteine

22

List the non polar amino acids

Glycine, proline, alanine, valine, Leucine, isoleucine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine

23

List positively charged amino acids

lysine, arginine, histidine

24

List the negatively charged amino acids

aspartic acid, glutamic acid

25

List the essential amino acids

H, I, L, K, F, T, W, V, R, M 

26

List the small/tiny amino acids

A, C, G, S, P, T, D, N

27

List the large amino acids

I, K, L, R, M, Y, F, W

28

What is the difference between nucleotides and nucleosides?

Nucleotides have a phosphate group that nucleosides do not

29

What is difference between purines and pyrimidines? List each

purines: 2 rings: guanine and adenine

pyrimadines: 1 ring: cytosine, thymine, uracil

30

Name the nucletide

cytosine

31

Name the nucleotide

Guanine

32

Name the nucleotide

thymine

33

Name the nucleotide 

uracil

34

Name the nucleotide

Adenine

35

Nucleic acids: hat kind of bond and where? In what direction does DNA grow?

phosphodiester bond

between 5’ phosphate and 3’ 

36

Proteins: what bond forms between amino acids and where? In what direction to proteins grow? 

Peptide bonds

between amine N and carbonyl C

next amino acid is added to the C end

37

Name the monosaccharide

glyceraldehyde

38

Name the monosaccharide

Ribose

39

Name the monosaccharide

Galactose

40

Name the monosaccharide

Dihydroxyacetone

41

Name the monosaccharide

Ribulose

42

Name the monosaccharide

Fructose

43

Name the monosaccharide

deoxyribose

44

Name the monosaccharide

mannose

45

What determines if a carbon ring is in alpha or beta configuration

Alpha configuration: OH on 1st or second carbon is down

beta configuration: OH on 1st or 2nd carbon is up

46

Name the disaccharide and what monosaccharides t is made up of

Maltose

glucose + glucose

47

Name the disaccharide

what two monosaccharides does it consist of

lactose

galactose + glucose

48

Name the disaccharide 

what two monosaccharides does it consist of

Sucrose

glucose + fructose

49

List and describe the 4 catalyst strategies

approximation: orientation and proximity

acid base: share protons

covalent: share electron

Stereostatic: 

50

Induced fit vs lock and key model

Lock and key fits at first

induced fit doesn't fit perfectly from the start

51

List the 6 classes of enzymes and describe

lyase:

ligase:

hydrolase:

Oxidoreductase:

transferase:

Isomerase:

52

What are the two main differences between passive and active transport

Passive: no ATP and travels with gradient

Active: uses ATP and travels against gradient

53

Describe P-type-ATPase

active transport

4 domains: transmembrane, A/actuator (link), N/nucleotide binding, P/phosphorylation

Ex. SERCA, Na/K pump

54

Describe ABC transport 

active transport

either monomer or homodimer

ex. MDR, MsbA

molecule binds empty transporter increasing affinity for ATP, ATP binds and causes eversion, molecule is released, ATP hydrolysis and release 

55

describe secondary active transport

primary active transport creates gradient the a passive channel or carrier allows molecules/ions to fall back down through gradient with a high value stowaway

ex. Na-glucose cotransport in intestine, lactose permease

56

describe ion channels

passive transport

have a selectivity filter and a gate

movement is a result of electrostatic repulsion

 

57

describe gap junctions

passive transport

channels

no filter no gate

58

describe aquaporin

facilitated diffusion, passive transport

selevtivity filter but no gate, only allows water through

59

glycolysis: location, rate limiting enzyme, regulated enzymes

location: cytoplasm

rate limitng enzyme: phosphofructokinase

regulated enzymes: hexokinase: G6P (-)

phosphofructokinase: citrate (-), low ATP (+)

pyruvate kinase: high ATP (-), fructose 1,6 bisphosphate (+)

60

TCA: location, rate limiting enzyme, regulated enzymes

location: mitochondrial matrix

rate limiting enzyme: isocitrate dehydrogenase

regulated enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: ATP (-), acetyl CoA (-), NADH (-), ADP (+), pyruvate (+)

isocitrate dehydrogenase: ATP (-), NADH (-), ADP (+)

alpha ketogluterate dehydrogenase complex: ATP (-), succinyl CoA (-), NADH (-) 

61

glycogenolysis: location, rate limiting enzyme, regulated enzymes

location: cytoplasm

rate limiting enzyme: glycogen phosphorylase

regulated enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase: dephosphorylation (-), phosphorylation (+)

62

amino acid catabolism: location

cytoplasm and mitochondria

urea cycle only happens in the liver

63

beta oxidation: location, rate limiting enzyme

cytoplasm and mitochondria

rate limiting enyme: perilipins: phosphorylation (+)

64

ketone bodies: where are they produced and where are they utilized

keton bodies are formed in the liver but only broken down in non-liver cells

65

gluconeogenesis: location, rate limiting enzyme, regulated enzymes

location: cytoplasm

rate limiting enzyme: fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase

regulated enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase: acetyl CoA (+), ADP (-)

PEP carboxykinase: ADP (-)

Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase: low ATP (-), citrate (+)

66

nucleotide synthesis: location, regulated enzymes

location: cytoplasm except dihydroorate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria

regulated enzymes: feedback regulation

ribonucleotide reductase: activity site and specificity site

67

TAG synthesis occurs in what cells

hepatocytes and adiposecytes

68

glycogenesis: location, rate limiting enzyme

location: cytoplasm

rate limiting enzyme: glycogen synthase: dephosphorylation (+), phosphorylation (-)

69

amino acid synthesis: location, regulated enzymes

location: cytoplasm

regulated enzymes: feedback regulation

glutamine sythetase: adenylation (-), deadenylation (+), PII (-), PII UMP (+), glutamine (-), alpha ketogluterate (+), ATP (+)

70

fatty acid synthesis: location, rate limiting enzyme, regulated enzyme

location: cytoplasm and mitochondria

rate limiting enzyme: acetyl CoA carboxylase

regulated enzymes: ATP citrate lyase: phoshporylation (+), glucose/ insulin (+), PUFA (-), leptin (-)

acetyl CoA carboxylase: citrate (+), insulin (+), high carb/low fat diet (+), palmitate (-), epinephrine/glucagon (-), AMP (-)

fatty acid synthase: sufar (+), PO4 (+), insulin (+), high carb/lowfat diet (+), high fat (-), starvation (-), PUFA (-)