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Flashcards in physiology II Deck (30)
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1

Which part of the cerebral cortex develops a "motor image" of the total muscle movement that is to be performed?

A. primary motor cortex
B. supplemental motor cortex
C. premotor cortex
D. supplemental sensory cortex

C. premotor cortex

2

which of the following inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagon, and gastrin; decreases motility of the stomach and duodenum , and decreases secretion and absorption of the GI tract?

A. glucokinase
B. carnitine
C. somatostatin
D. acetoacetic acids

C. somatostatin

3

the main hormone responsible for controlling feedback of the duodenum is:

A. CCK
B. chyme
C. motilin
D. GIP

A. CCK

4

approximately what percent of the body's calcium is stored in extracellular fluids?

A. less than 1 percent
B. 25 percent
C. 50 percent
D. more than 75 percent

A. less than 1 percent

5

respiratory alkalosis due to a decrease in carbon dioxide concentration caused by hyperventilation is compensated for by which of the following mechanisms?

A. increased ventilation rate
B. decreased ventilation rate
C. renal excretion of bicarbonate ion
D. renal addition of new bicarbonate ion to extracellular fluid

(this is a phys I question)

C. renal excretion of bicarbonate ion

6

Significant reduction in ECF and blood volume, diminished cardiac output, and hyperkalemia are characteristic of lack of which of the following?

A. aldosterone
B. estrogen
C. cortisol
D. DHEA

A. aldosterone

7

Surfactant is a lipoprotein essential to maintain alveolar function. In a healthy fetus, it is formed in the lungs at what time?

A. 24 weeks gestation
B. 28 weeks gestation
C. 34 weeks gestation
D. 38 weeks gestation

A. 24 weeks

8

in typical sensory pathways, decussation occurs at what level?

A. primary (first order) neurons
B. secondary (second order) neurons
C. tertiary (third order) neurons
D. none of these

B secondary (second order) neurons

9

which of the following cell types respond to rapid changes in the visual image?

A. bipolar cells
B. amacrine cells
C. X type ganglion cells
D. Y type ganglion cells
E. Z type ganglion cells

D. Y type ganglion cells

10

control functions for muscle movements of the axial body, neck, shoulders , and hips is located in which of the following areas of the cerebellum?

A. vermis
B. intermediate zone
C. lateral zone
D. cerebroverebellum

A. vermis

11

for each molecule of glucosse that is hydrolyzed in glycolysis what is the net gain in ATPs?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8

A. 2

12

hypocalcemia usually becomes lethal at which of the following levels?

A. 12 mg/dl
B. 9.5 mg/dl
C. 6 mg/dl
D. 4 mg/dl

D. 4 mg/dl

13

which of the following statements is true?

A. the liver has a low blood flow and high vascular resistance
B. the liver has a low blood flow and low vascular resistance
C. the liver has a high blood flow and high vascular resistance
D. the liver has a high blood flow and a low vascular resistance

D. the liver has a high blood flow and low vascular resistance

14

which of the following landmakrs demarcates the sensory cortex from the motor cortex?

A. lateral sulcus
B. central sulcus
C. insala
D. angular gyrus

B. central sulcus

15

the thalamus is derived from which of the following brain divisions?

A. telencephalon
B. diencephalon
C. mesencephalon
D. metencephalon
E. myelencephalon

B. diencephalon

16

sensory information entering the central nervous system typically decussates at some point in the spinal cord or brain. For visual information, this decussation occurs in the optic chiasma. HOw much decussation occurs in the optic chiasma?

A. 25%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 100%

B. 50%

17

the output from the cerebellar cortex is from which of the following types of neurons?

A. Golgi type I
B. Purkinje
C. Stellate
D. Basket

B. Purkinje

18

a higher than normal back pressure in hepatic veins may lead to the following condition?

A. jaundice
B. cirrhosis
C. ascites
D. diabetes

C. ascites

19

fructose, which provides energy for sperm, is secreted by which of the following?

A. seminal vesicles
B. prostate gland
C. cells of leydig
D. sertoli cells

A. seminal vesicles

20

during the menstrual cycle, the early growth of a follicle is primarily stimulated by which of the following?

A. LH
B. FSH
C. estrogen
D. progesterone

B. FSH

21

The human central nervous system develops from a midline tube. The cranial end of the tube is formed into five subdivisions arranged in a linear sequence. The cerebellum of the adult brain is derived from which of the following subdivisions?

A. metencephalon
B. diencephalon
C. telencephalon
D. myencephalon

A. metencephalon

22

the cerebral cortex is divided into many areas with specific sets of functions. Which of the following areas of the cerebral cortex would have direct connections with specific muscles?

A. primary motor areas
B. secondary motor areas
C. primary sensory areas
D. secondary sensory areas

A. primary motor areas

23

muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs are types of tonic receptors. Which of the following characteristics applies to tonic receptors?

A. rapidly adapting
B. transmit information regarding rate of change
C. stimulated only when stimulus strength changes
D. detects continuous stimulus strength

D. detects continuous stimulus strength

24

When hair cell sterocilia are bent, a tugging on the shorter sterocilia occurs such that ion channels open allowing which of the following to enter the hair cells?

A. potassium
B. sodium
C. chloride
D. calcium

A. potassium

25

Which of the following is part of the pyramidal system of motor pathways?

A. rubrospinal tract
B. vestibulospinal tract
C. corticospinal tract
D. reticulospinal tract

C. corticospinal tract

26

Coordination of skilled movement and speech is primarily associated with which of the following divisions of the cerebellum?

A. vestibulocerecellum
B. spinocereceullum
C. cerecrocerecellum
D. vermis

C. cerevrocerebellum

27

Which of the following is secreted by duodenal and upper jejunal cells in response to the presence of acidic foods in the upper intestine? It stimulates the release of large amounts of pancreatic sodium bicarbonate and inhibits gastric acid secretion.

A. secretin
B. CCK
C. gastrin
D. motilin

A. secretin

28

The gastrocolic reflex, enterogastric reflex, and colonoileal reflex are examples of which of the following categories of gastrointestinal reflexes?

A. reflexes that are integrated entirely within the gut wall enteric nervous system
B. reflexes from the gut to the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and then back to the GI tract
C. reflexes from the gut to the spinal cord or brain stem and then back to the GI tract
D. none of the above is correct

B. reflexes from the gut to the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and then back to the GI tract

29

Which of the following areas of the brain is normally inhibitted by signals from the heat center but is activated by cold signals from the skin and spinal cord and is responsible for the activation of shivering responses?

A. anterior hypothalamus
B. preoptic area
C. posterior hypothalamus
D. thalamus

C. posterior hypothalamus

30

a person on serotonin reuptake inhibitors may experience decreased GI motility. The reason for this is primarily due to which of the following reasons?

A. secretory neurons of the submucosal plexus utilize serotonin as a neurotransmitter
B. motor neurons of the myentric plexus utilize serotonin as a neurotransmitter
C. interneurons of the myenteric plexus utilize serotonin as a neurotransmitter
D. sensory neurons of the submucosal plexus utilize serotonin as a neurotransmitter

C. interneurons of the myenteric plexus utilize serotonin as a neurotransmitter