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Flashcards in Biological Molecules Deck (28):
1

nonproteogenic amino acids

non-coded or unnatural amino acids

2

biogenic amino acids

naturally occurring, biologically active amines

3

cystine

nonproteogenic amino acid, dimer consisting of two cystines via disulfide bonds

4

homocysteine

methionine derived but has extra methyl group

5

homocystine

a dimer of two homosteines attached via disulfide bonds

6

S-adenosylmethionine

derivitive of methionine, made up of methionine attached to ribose group of adenosine via a carbon-sulfur bond

7

taurine

a derivative of cystein

8

selenocysteine

cystein but with sulfur replaced with selenium

9

ornithine and citrulline

ornithine derived from glutamic acid, serves as precursor to citrulline

10

L dopa

derived from tyrosine

11

cysteamine

derived from cysteine

12

histamine

derived from histidine

13

dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine

catecholamines synthesized from L dopa

14

carnitine

derived from lysine AND methionine

15

creatine

derived from arginine, glycine, methionine

16

Class/Aldose and Ketose

triose

aldose = glyceraldehyde, in glycolysis and pentose pos pw
ketose = dihydroxyacetone in glycolysis

17

class/Aldose and Ketose

tetraose

aldose = erythrose in pentose phos pw

18

class/Aldose and Ketose

pentose

aldose = D-ribose in DNA
ketose = D-ribulose in pentose phos pw

19

class/Aldose and Ketose

hexose

aldose = D glucose, D galactose, D mannose
ketose = D fructose

20

class/Aldose and Ketose

heptose

aldose = none
ketose = sedoheptulose in pentose phos pw

21

Lipids: two classes

fatty acids and isoprenoids (5 carbon molecules)

22

isoprenoids

cholesterol, steroid hormones, bile acids
lipid soluble vitamins: K, A, D, E
Coenzyme Q

23

phosphatidic acid

glyocphospholipid

diacylglycerol with C1 attached to a phosphate group

24

phosphatidyl alcohol

glycerophospholipid

diacylglycerol with C1 attached to a phosphate group which is attached to an amino alcohol or sugar alcohol

four derivatives:

phosphatidylcholine
phosphatidylserine
phosphatidylethanolamine
phosphatidylinositol

25

Cardiolipin

glycerophospholipid

diacylglycerol ---PO4-- monoacylglycerol -- PO4 -- triacylglycerol

26

Ceramide

sphingosine spine with one acyl group

27

sphingomyelin

sphingosine with an acyl group and a phosphate group attached to a choline group

28

glycolipid

sphingosine group attached to a sugar

four derivatives:

cerebroside
sulfatide
gluboside
ganglioside