Cellular Structures Flashcards Preview

MCM > Cellular Structures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular Structures Deck (45):
1

intermediary metabolism

occurs in cytoplasm, which consists of cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles

2

post-translational changes on proteins and lipids

golgi apparatus

3

cell differentiation, signaling, and cell death

mitochondria

4

small vesciular compartments that contain enzymes used in oxidation

peroxisomes

5

vesicle that contains digestive enzymes that degrade organelles and biomolecules

lysosomes

6

Topological compartment

nucleus and cytosol

7

3 topological compartmentalization

1) nucleus and cytosol: communicate through nuclear pores
2) organelles in the secretory and endocytic pws (golgi a., ER, endosomes and lysosomes) communicate through vesicles (these organelles are considered topologically equivalent)
3) mitochondria

8

Topologically equivalent organelles

Theisen's slide

"membrane budding and fusion allows the lumen of these compartments to communicate with each other and with the cell exterior"

9

ER: consists of what components and what compartments

cisternae (flat stacks), tubules, vesicles, divides the cytoplasm into two compartments:

luminal or cisternal compartment
cytoplasmic or cytosolic compartment

synthesizing, packaging, processing

10

Rough ER

parallel sacs of flat, elongated cisternae, studded with ribosomes

1.where proteins are synthesized and modified
2. proteins are segregated for intracellular use AND
3. proteins are segregated for export from the cell

cells designed for secretion have lots of rough ER

11

Protein synthesis: explain how ribosomes attach to the endoplasmic reticulum

ribosomes attach to the ER under the guidance of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide they're synthesizing

12

the mechanism by which proteins meant to be secreted find their way to the ER

explained by the signal sequence hypothesis

13

Signal sequence

at the beginning of the polypeptide there is a SRP that directs newly synthesizing peptides into the ER cisternae

it is eventually removed

14

proteins exit the RER in ____ and go where?

vesicles, and they go to the cis-portion of the golgi apparatus

15

Smooth ER

how does it differ from the RER?

1.lacks ribosomes
2. contains tubular cisternae

16

Smooth ER

functions

glycogen metabolism
lipid synthesis
phospholipid synthesis (other membranes)
detoxification
steroidogenesis
calcium regulation

abundent in cells that make steroids or lipids

17

Golgi apparatus or complex: consists of, faces, and their direction

flattened sacks called cisternae
cis side faces endoplasmic re., trans side faces plasma membrane of nucleus

18

Golgi apparatus: function

modification of carbohydrates
synthesis of: polysaccharide and oligosaccharide
synthesis of : sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids
sorting secretory products (making lysosomal enzymes with mannose-6-phosphate (M6P))
packaging and sorting secretory products into secretory granules or vesicles

MAKING LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES WITH MANNOSE-6-PHOSPHATE

19

two kinds of coated vesicles in golgi transport systems

clathrin and COP coated

20

clathrin coated vesicles

transport products from the golgi apparatus to lysosomes or products from the exterior of the cell to lysosomes

21

COP coated vesicles

coating protein

transporting products between stacks of the golgi apparatus (COPI) and between ER and Golgi-cis (COPII)

22

retrograde and anterograde travel

anterograde is between stacks
retrograde is from stacks to the golgi

23

Clathrin assembly and function

three protein chains
clathrin connected to an adaptin, an M6P receptor to M6P


seen in exocytosis/secretory and endocytosis pathway

in the endocytosis pathway, vesicles start at the plasma membrane

24

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

25

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

26

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

27

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

28

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

29

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

30

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

31

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

32

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

33

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

34

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

35

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

36

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

37

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

38

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

39

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

40

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

41

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

42

Clathrin in the endocytic PW

vesicles start at the plasma membrane as clathrin coated pits: clathrin connects to adaptin.

DYNAMIN PINCHES clathrin coats from membrane
ADAPTIN mediates clathrin binding to the vesicle membrane

43

Dynamin disorders

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

2. Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system

44

Charcot Marie Tooth disease

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

1. Charcot Marie Tooth disease, affects myelination and peripheral nerve conduction

45

Centronuclear myopathy

dynamin 2: mutations in gene results in two congentical neuromuscular disorders

Centronuclear myopathy: characterized by a progressive and generalized atrophy of skeletal muscles, yet it is also associated with abnormalities in the nervous system