DNA is made from which monomer?
Mononucleotides (or just nucleotides)
Name the 3 components of a nucleotide
Organic base (containing nitrogen)
In DNA, which base complements guanine?
In RNA, which base complements adenine?
In DNA, which base complements thymine?
In RNA, which base complements guanine?
In DNA, which base complements cytosine?
In RNA, which base complements uracil?
What shape does a molecule of DNA take?
A double helix
In DNA, which base complements adenine?
DNA is a stable molecule because...
- The phosphodiester backbone protects the chemically reactive base pairs.
- C-G base pairs contain 3 hydrogen bonds, so the more C-G base pairs in a DNA molecule the more stable it is.
- Interactive forces between base pairs add further stability ('base stacking')
How many hydrogen bonds are formed between Cytosine and Guanine in a DNA molecule?
Name the bond that forms between the 2 nucleotides of a dinucleotide.
What is the function of RNA?
To transfer genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes.
How is DNA adapted to carry out its function as a means of passing genetic information from generation to generation?
- Very stable - rarely mutates
- Hydrogen bonds between strands easy to separate for replication and protein synthesis.
- Very long - carries a lot of genetic information.
- Base pairs protected from chemical/physical forces by phosphodiester backbone.
Name the 3 Scientists who discovered the structure of DNA
Describe how are 2 DNA nucleotides form a dinucleotide
A condensation reaction occurs between the hydroxyl (OH) group on the 3' carbon of Deoxyribose on 1 nucleotide and the hydroxyl group of the phosphate group on another nucleotide.
In RNA, which base complements cytosine?
How many hydrogen bonds are formed between Adenine and Thymine in a DNA molecule?
How are the 2 strands of DNA that make up the double helix held together?
Hydrogen bonds between complementary organic bases
What is the function of DNA
To carry genetic information
Name the 2 nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Name the organic bases that can become part of a DNA nucleotide
The phosphate group, pentose sugar and organic base of a DNA or RNA nucleotide are joined through which type of reaction?
The phosphate group attaches to which carbon atom of a ribose or deoxyribose molecule when forming a nucleotide?
The 5' carbon atom (pronounced 5 prime)
Name the organic bases that can become part of a RNA nucleotide
Describe how 2 RNA nucleotides form a dinucleotide
A condensation reaction occurs between the hydroxyl (OH) group on the 3' carbon of Ribose on 1 nucleotide and the hydroxyl group of the phosphate group on another nucleotide.
Which type of bond are the arrows pointing at?
If the bases on one strand of DNA are TGGAGACT, determine the base sequence on the other strand.
If 19.9% of the base pairs in human DNA are guanine, calculate the percentage that is Thymine. Show your reasoning.
If 19.9% is guanine - 19.9% is cytosine as it is paired with it.
19.9 + 19.9 = 39.8%.
The remaining DNA is made from Adenine and Thymine, which is 60.2%. Thymine = 60.2% divided by 2 = 30.1%.
what is meant by degenerate when talking about the genetic code?
more than one triplet for each amino acid
What is meant by the term non overlapping when talking about the genetic code?
each base only read the once
How do the organic bases help to stabilise structure of DNA?
1. Hydrogen bonds between the base pairs holds two strands together;
2. Many hydrogen bonds provides strength;
Function of DNA helicase?
break H bonds between bases
Function of DNA polymerase?
join nucleotides together/reforrms phosphodiester backbone
Give 2 differences between the nucleotide in ATP (nucleotide derivative) and the nucleotides in DNA
1. ATP has 3 phosphates DNA 1 phosphate group per nucleotide
2. ATP has ribose, DNA deoxyribose
3. ATP - base always adenine, DNA it varies
Name the bone between the deoxyribose and the phosphate in a nucleotide