Biological Molecules - 3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides Flashcards Preview

As-Level Biology > Biological Molecules - 3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Molecules - 3.1.2.2 Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides to Polysaccharides Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name a structural polysaccharide

Cellulose (plant cell walls)

2

What happens during hydrolysis

A water molecule is taken in to break down a chain of molecules.

3

When many monosaccharides join together, they form a...

polysaccharide

4

Polysaccharides are large. This means that they are...

insoluble (will not dissolve)

5

Which elements make up carbohydrates?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

6

When 2 monosaccharides join together, they form a...

disaccharide

7

What happens during a condensation reaction?

A water molecule is released from the reacting molecules

8

How many covalent bonds does carbon make?

4

9

Which type of reaction takes place when two monosaccharides join together?

Condensation Reaction

10

A 4 carbon sugar is called a...

tetrose

11

Name the bond that forms between two monosaccharides

Glycosidic bond

12

An individual biological molecule is called a...

monomer

13

Which type of reaction takes place when a disaccharide or polysaccharide is broken down?

Hydrolysis

14

Name 3 common disaccharides

Maltose (glucose + glucose)

Sucrose (glucose + fructose)

Lactose (glucose + galactose)

15

What is an isomer?

Molecules that have the same chemical formula but whose molecules are arranged differently.

16

Long chains of repeating molecules are called...

polymers

17

A 6 carbon sugar is called a...

hexose

18

Glucose + Fructose --> _________

Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose

19

A 3 carbon sugar is called a...

triose

20

The general chemical formula of a monosaccharide is...

(CH2O)where n is the number of carbon atoms.

21

Glucose + Glucose --> _________

Glucose + Glucose --> Maltose

22

A 7 carbon sugar is called a...

heptose

23

A 5 carbon sugar is called a...

pentose

24

A molecule containing carbon is called an...

organic molecule

25

An individual sugar molecule is called a...

monosaccharide

26

Name 4 common hexose monomers

α-Glucose

β-Glucose

Galactose

Fructose

27

Name 2 common storage polysaccharides

Glycogen

Starch

28

Which 4 elements make up most biological molecules?

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Nitrogen

29

Glucose + Galactose --> _________

Glucose + Galactose --> Lactose

30

Polysaccharides are used in cells for _____________ and ____________

Storage (energy)

Structure (cell walls)

31

name the monomer that makes up maltose

glucose

32

sucrose hydrolysis produces..

fructose and

glucose

33

How is starch related to its function?

1. Helical/ spiral shape so compact;

2. Large (molecule)/insoluble so osmotically inactive;

3. Branched so glucose is (easily) released for respiration;

4. Large (molecule) so cannot leave cell/cross cell-surface membrane;

34

How is the structure of cellulose suited to its function?

Long, straight/unbranched chains of β glucose;

Joined by hydrogen bonding;

To form (micro/macro)fibrils;

Provides rigidity/strength;

35

What other enzyme is required for the complete digestion of starch?

amylase and maltase

36

Give 2 differences between the structure of cellulose and glycogen

celluose molecules  straight chains;glycogen branched

cellulose beta glucose;glycogen alpha glucose

celluose molecules straight chains; glycogen coiled

celluose has only 1, 4 glycosidic bonds; glycogen has 1,4 and 1,6 bonds

37

Desccribe and explain 2 features of starch that makes it a good storage molecule

coiled/helical making it compact

insoluble so does not affect the WP of cells

LArge so cant cross the cell membrane

Branched so more ends for enzyme action

 

38

test which tests for starch?

iodine

39

Describe how lactose is formed

glucose and galactose

join by condensation reaction

through a glycosidic bond

Decks in As-Level Biology Class (43):