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Flashcards in Biology Deck (21)
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1

Autotrophs

x

2

Heterotrophs

x

3

Linnaean taxonomy

every individual species is given a unique two-part (binomial) latin name. refer to genus and species, of an eight-part hierarchy that organizes all living things by their biological similarity to one another.

4

The 8 divisions

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

5

Sexual reproduction

the recombination of the genetic material from 2 parent individuals to form a new one

6

gamete

The container of genetic material donated by each parent

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Gametes of fungi are called

spores

8

Spore

compact, protected cell, capable of remaining alive but dormant for long periods of time until it finds a suitable home

9

Basidiomycetes

produce their spores on basidia, tiny baseball bat shaped protuberances lining their gills, the blade-like structures arranged in a radial pattern on the underside of the cap, or pileus

10

Stipe

the pileus is held aloft on the end of a cylindrical stem, known to mycologists as a stipe

11

germinate

x

12

Hyphae

tubular, filamentous cells that expand and divide at their forward tips, branching occasionally to create fork- or fan-like structures

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Mycelium

masses of hyphae

14

How does hyphae eat

Digestive enzymes secreted from tips of mycelium into their surroundings degrade substrate into simpler organic molecules, to be absorbed or engulfed by the mycelium as it marches along. Fungi digest on the outside.

15

Parasitic fungi

colonize and digest living organisms, often killing their host in the end

16

Mycorrhizal fungi

live in a symbiotic relationship with their plant hosts

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Mating

Each spore germinates on its own, cells dividing and slowly growing out into its substrate. They explore and reach out for one another.

18

Mating types

fungi produce spores of multiple mating types, similar to sexes, except there can be 2 to thousands. In order for 2 strains of monokaryotic fungi to mate, they must be of different mating types.

19

Monokaryotic

cells with only one haploid nucleus, only half the genetic material of a mature fungus

20

Dikaryotization

a state unique to most basidiomycetes, where the cells from two compatible gametes join together into one cell type, but their individual nuclei remain separate.

21

Basidiomycetes

live most days with two nuclei per cell, one from each "parent" monokaryotic mycelium