Biology Flashcards Preview

BMAT > Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...

What is the nucleus?

A site of genetic material, chromosomes, genes.


What are alleles?

An allele is a variant of a gene, and there are two in a gene, they can be dominant or recessive.


What is heterozygous?

Heterozygous is when a gene has two different alleles.


What is homozygous?

Homozygous is when you have two identical alleles.


What is a phenotype?

A description of your physical characteristics, like height, eyecolour, do you gain weight easily? Do you like cats? ect. Some things are related to personal experiences.


What is a genotype?

A complete hereditable genetic identity. Your unique genome. Typically, the expression is used about a specific gene, or a particular set of genes.


Capital Y and y, what are they in genetics?

Commonly referred to as gametes, Y is a dominant allele, y is a recessive allele.


What are the recessive traits?

An affected individual is homozygous recessive (aa). An unaffected individual is either homozygous dominant (AA) or heterozygous dominant (Aa).
If two unaffected parents have an affected child, the condition is recessive.
If two affected parents (aa) breed, all children will be affected.


What are the dominant traits?

An affected individual is either homozygous dominant (AA) or heterozygous dominant (Aa). An unaffected individual is homozygous recessive (aa).
If two affected parents have an unaffected child (aa), both parents are heterozygous dominant (Aa).
If a homozygous dominant (AA) individual breeds, all children will be affected.
If two unaffected parents (aa) breed, no children will be affected.


What is true for mutations?

Mutations can cause a change in genetic material. Mutations can be beneficial. Mutations can lead to disease such as cancer.


What is homeostasis?

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment. Eg. regulation of blood glucose, water content and temperature.


What do hormones do?

Hormones are signals that travel in the blood to help the brain regulate bodily functions. It travels to and from the brain to their target organs.


How does the nervous system work?

Short term, very fast response, electrical impulses via neurones, target a specific region, voluntary or involuntary.


How does the hormonal system work?

Long term, slower response, chemical messengers via blood, target the body as a whole, always involuntary.