Biology - Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology - Digestive System Deck (11):
1

Function & made up of what tissue?

- Takes in food, digests it, and excretes the remaining wastes
- Digestive tract is made up of muscle, nerve, and epithelial tissue (with goblet cells to secrete mucus)

2

Mucus function

- Protects internal lining of the digestive tract from digestive enzymes used to break down food
- Allows material to pass smoothly along digestive tract

3

Mouth

- Mechanical digestion is carried out by teeth that grinds the food and tongue that pushes the bolus to the pharynx
- Chemical digestion is carried out by digestive enzymes (e.g. amylase) found in saliva produced by salivary glands
- Saliva: moistens food to prevent abrasion in the mouth

4

Esophagus

- Muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach

5

Stomach

- Produces thick lining of mucus to protect stomach
- Lots of nerves to signal to brain we are full
- Stores food
- Mechanical digestion as the stomach churns food
- Chemical digestion as it produces hydrochloric acid (pH 2) and enzymes to breakdown food further

6

Intestines

- Made up of smooth muscle that contract and relax to move substances through (i.e. peristalsis)
- Contains capillaries

7

Small Intestines

- 6 meters long and narrow
- Most of digestion and absorption of nutrients occur here and enter the blood stream

8

Large Intestines

- Shorter but wider
- Reabsorbs water back into the body so waste is excreted as a solid
- Contains bacteria that releases important vitamins from our food

9

Pancreas

Produces insulin which helps transport sugar from blood into cells

10

Liver

Produces bile which aid in the digestion of fat molecules

11

Gall Bladder

Stores bile