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Flashcards in ALL Deck (43):


A + B = AB



AB = A + B


Single Displacement Concepts

Metal + water = base + H2
Metal + acid = ionic compound + H2


Double Displacement Concepts

Acid + base = salt + water



CxHy + O2 = CO2 + H2O


Respiratory + Circulatory Systems

- Oxygen is breathed in and ends up at alveoli
- O2 diffuses into capillaries and into artery blood which returns to heart via vein and is pumped to rest of body cells
- At the same time, capillaries release CO2 from blood into alveoli


Digestive + Circulatory Systems

- Digestive breaks down food and releases nutrients
- Nutrients are absorbed into bloodstream
- Circulatory transports all around body cells



- Communication in mines, submarines, aircraft
- TV signals, radio, MRI



- Microwaves
- Radar in cars, airplanes
- Satellites


Infrared light

- Image infrared radiation
- Motion sensors, burglar alarms, night vision googles
- Remote control


Visible light



Ultraviolet light

- Disinfect water
- DNA analysis
- Reveal substances unseen in visible light



- Medical imaging
- Security in airports
- Photographing in machines to check for damage


Gamma Rays

- Sterilize medical equipment
- Cancer treatment


Concave: application

- search light: light source is at focus and reflected rays form parallel beam
- telescope: parallel light rays focused into clear image after reflecting off concave


Convex: application

- reflected rays from object never form real image
- brain projects rays behind mirror = smaller, upright, virtual image
- show wide range in cameras or car side-view mirrors


Explain how a mirage is formed on a pavement.

- as pavement heats up, the air above it gets warm + less dense
- the air higher up is still cool and therefore has a higher index of refraction
- when light ray's angle of incidence becomes greater than critical angle, total internal refraction occurs
- the wet appearance is actually a reflection of the sky


Explain how light shimmers on water.

- at night, water is warmer than land and gives off heat causing moonlight (reflected sunlight) to refract as it passes through different layers.
- light is reflected + refracted; partial and total internal reflection occurs
- this produces multiple images of the moon at various speesd


Explain how raindrops act like a prism.

- during/after rain, thousands of raindrops are in the air
- sun rays penetrate drops, causing refraction
- light is separated into different colours because certain colours are slowed down (dispersion)
- this beam of colours is partially internally reflected off the back + front of the drop which refracts it again and separates it more
- the light hits your eye; you project the rays backwards to form virtual image of the spectrum


Explain how refraction causes the pencil to appear closer to the surface than it actually is.

- incident ray is bent at water/air boundary and refracted
- refracted ray hits our eyes
- we project the rays back in a straight line, making the object to be shallower than it is



- Sun hits Earth directly overhead while at poles it strikes at an angle
- Sun's energy is shining on a smaller area, so it's stronger at equator
- At poles, the radiation travels through more of the atmosphere, which absorbs + reflects radiation so less reaches the ground


Effect of Large Bodies of Water

- Water has high specific heat capacity so it takes more energy to heat up and longer for it to cool
- Regions near bodies of water will have lake effect



- Difference in latitude and different rate of absorption causes currents
- Higher temperature = more spread out = less dense
- Convection current in water
- Cold dense air moves from higher pressure to low = wind
- Air and wind currents travel from equator to poles



- As clouds blow over mountain, rain on windward while leeward is dry
- Warm air meets cold mountain, air cools, gets dense, falls as rain
- Leeward side is dry because no moisture left



- At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is lower because less air pushing down
- As air moves from lower to higher altitudes, it expands
- It spreads out and it's colder
- Alpine climate


First Example of Positive Feedback Loops in climate?

Water Vapour feedback loop:

Warmer temperature ➨ more evaporation ➨ even warmer temperature


Second Example of Positive Feedback Loops in climate?

Albedo Effect:

Warmer temperature ➨ melts snow/ice ➨ even warmer temperature (less reflection, more absorption of heat)


Primary Footprint: def

direct emissions of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels (we have direct control over this)


Primary Footprint: examples

- Gas, oil, coal (domestic energy consumption)
- Electricity
- Private transport
- Public transport
- Holiday flights


Secondary Footprint: def

measure of the indirect carbon dioxide emissions as a result of the manufacture and breakdown of the products we use


Secondary Footprint: examples

- Share of public services
- Financial services
- Recreation & leisure
- Buildings and furnishings
- Car manufacture & delivery
- Clothes


Reducing Primary Footprint

- Walk/take TTC
- Turn down heat
- Turn off lights
- Eat less meat
- Buy energy efficient appliances
- Use fluorescent lights


Reducing Secondary Footprint

- Reduce consumption of goods (needs vs wants)
- Eat out less often
- Buy locally
- Vacation locally
- Recycle/reuse
- Don’t drink bottled water


Proxy: Ice Core Data

- Sample of ice taken from ice sheet or ice cap
- Greenland and Antarctica; 800,000 years
- They contain air bubbles and dust and dirt
- Ice core gas bubbles can be analyzed for amount of CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide contained in them
- Oxygen isotopes
- Water containing O-18 is heavier and needs more energy/heat to evaporate it, so this happens which the temperatures are warmer


Proxy: Dendrochronology

- Trees in temperature climates produce 1 growth ring per year
In wetter, warmer years, the tree rings are wider; in drier, cooler years, narrower
- By comparing the patterns of tree rings, the records may go back over 10,000 years
- In Ontario, dendrochronology allows scientists to study climate for the past 2750 years


Proxy: Coral Reefs

- Add layers of growth each season and can be drilled to study their layers
- Help determine the temperature of the ocean when the layer was growing
- Corals build their skeletons out of calcium carbonate
- Isotopes of oxygen may be O-18 or O-16
- Higher proportions of O-18 indicates cooler ocean temperatures when that layer was formed (when temperature is cool, O-16 will evaporate because it’s lighter)


Proxy: Soil Layers

- Contain pollen and plant and animal fossils
- Crawford Lake in Ontario is a mercomictic lake: bottom layers remain undisturbed
- Plants produce large amounts of pollen and it is decay-resistance
- Specific plant species can be identified by their pollen
- Since weather conditions affect plant growth, climate patterns may then be established


Proxy: Cave Formations

- Cave formations (eg. stalactites) grow as minerals dissolved in water solidify into rock (often calcium carbonate)
- Layers can then be measured and dated; they grow faster in rainy years than in dry


Evidence of Climate Change

1. Global temps
2. Melting glaciers
3. Severe weather
4. Sea level rise
5. Precipitation patterns
6. Mountain pine beetle


Effects of Global Warming: Climate

- Spring is coming 2 weeks earlier in some parts of the world which disrupts animal migrations and can have impacts on ecosystem balances
- Heat waves are occuring which is causing droughts in some areas
- Increased rainfall in areas is causing flooding


Effects of Global Warming: Sea Levels

Rising as a result of melting of glaciers and expansion of ocean water, which is causing coastal flooding


Effects of Global Warming: Health

- Heat waves cause deaths, especially among the elderly, young, ill, poor
- Warmer temperatures have allowed disease-carrying mosquitos to migrate and extend their ranges


Effects of Global Warming: Ecosystems

- Coral reefs are dying because water temperature is rising
- Disruption of the Arctic climate due to warming of Arctic Ocean and melting the ice may lead to the extinction of polar bears