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A2 Biology Unit 5 > Biology Essay > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Essay Deck (18):
1

The membranes of different types of cells are involved in
many different functions

Membrane function as selectively permeable barrier

Transport mechanisms acrossmembranes

Absorption and co-transport of sodium ions and glucose

Photosynthesis, chloroplast, thylakoids

Respiration, mitochondrion and cristae

Protein secretion, RER, SER and Golgi

Surface receptors/antigen and immune response

Cell division

Vertical and horizontal transmission – membranes and
bacteria

Pacinian corpuscle

Tropisms – movement of IAA

Nerve impulses/action potentials

Synaptic transmission

Muscle contraction, calcium ion movement/storage

Hormones - eg Blood glucose regulation – insulin and glucagon

Osmosis, including water
movement in plants

2

There are many different types of relationships and
interactions between organisms

Pathogens and effects on host

Cholera

TB

Taxonomy

Classification and evolution

Inheritance and evolution

Genetic code, universal

Behaviour

Populations and evolution, variation between individuals within a species

Relationships within ecosystems– eg predator/prey

Energy transfer in ecosystems

Nutrient cycles, the organisms involved

Succession, biodiversity, species and individuals in a community

Human impacts on the environment and its effect on
relationships between organisms –including farming

Gene technology and GMO and selective breeding

Antibiotic resistance

3

Cells and organisms carry out exchanges with their external environment to maintain their internal environment

Homeostasis (concept of)

Digestion and absorption

Cells

Lung function

Gas exchange

Passage of water through plant

Nutrient cycles

Response to stimuli

Neurones

Temperature control

Tissue fluid and its formation

Control of blood glucose concentration

Negative feedback

Gene expression

4

How energy is transferred within and between organisms

Photosynthesis

Energy transfer through ecosystems

Food production

Digestion (as in fuel)

Absorption (by cells)

Mass transport

Respiration

ATP

Stimuli and responses

Muscle contraction

Nerve impulses

5

The importance of shapes fitting together in cells and
organisms

Proteins & Enzymes:
Enzyme properties and
digestion
Protein structure
Plasma membrane structure and cell transport
Antigens, antibodies, B cells & T cells
Vaccines

Nucleic Acids:
Structure of DNA
DNA Replication (not PCR)
Transcription & translation
Transcriptional factors,oestrogen, siRNA
Restriction enzymes

Physiology:
Haemoglobin
Action potentials & synaptic transmission
Muscle contraction
Control of blood glucose concentration
Control of mammalian oestrous cycle

6

How bacteria can affect the lives of humans and other
organisms

Bacteria & Disease:
Pathogens
Lactose intolerance
Cholera
Tuberculosis
Resistance to antibiotics

Ecological Importance:
Carbon cycle
Nitrogen cycle
Eutrophication

Making Use of Bacteria:
Use of bacterial enzymes eg restriction endonuclease, DNA polymerase for PCR
Use of bacterial plasmids eg in vivo gene
cloning, genetically-modified crops, gene therapy
Use of bacteria to produce useful chemicals

7

Using DNA in science and technology

DNA and classification:
Structure of DNA
Differences in DNA lead to genetic diversity
Comparison of DNA base sequences
DNA hybridisation

Genetic engineering and making
useful substances:
Plasmids
The use of recombinant DNA to produce transformed
organisms that benefit humans

Other uses of DNA:
Cell cycle and treatment of cancer
Gene therapy
Medical diagnosis and the treatment of human disease
The use of DNA probes to screen patients for clinically
important genes

8

A cycle is a biological pathway or process in which the
end product of one cycle becomes the starting point for the next.
Write an essay about cycles in biology

Ecological cycles

Nutrient cycles

Carbon cycle

Nitrogen cycle

Biochemical cycles

Enzyme action

Synthesis of ATP from ADP

Light-independent reaction

The Krebs cycle

Physiological and genetic cycles

The mechanism of breathing

The cardiac cycle

The cell cycle

Muscle contraction

Oestrous cycle

9

A carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly or indirectly.
Describe and explain these effects

Carbon dioxide affects the physiology
of organisms:
Pulmonary ventilation and the mechanism of breathing
Light-independent reaction of photosynthesis. Limiting
factors
Role of chemoreceptors in controlling heart rate

The direct effects of increasing
carbon dioxide concentration:
Respiration, photosynthesis and human activity giving rise
to short-term fluctuations and long-term change.
Yield of crop plants
Carbon cycle

Indirect effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration:
Role of carbon dioxide in producing global warming
Life cycles and number ofinsect pests
Distribution of animals and plants
Effect of temperature on enzymes

10

The causes of disease in humans

Pathogens:
Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi
Pathogens cause disease by damaging cells and producing toxins
Cholera bacteria produce toxins resulting in diarrhoea
Symptoms and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis
Horizontal gene transmission and MRSA

Lifestyle:
Risk factors associated with cancer and coronary heart
disease
The effects of fibrosis, asthma and emphysema on lung
function
The biological basis of heart disease

Genetics:
Differences in bases may lead to non-functional enzymes
Relationship between the cell cycle and cancer
Proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes
Gene mutations

11

The movement of substances within living organisms

Osmosis

Across cell membranes

Movement of water/mineral ions in plants

Enzymes, kinetic energy and reactions

Gut and absorption

DNA Transcription and translation

Mitosis and Meiosis

Sperm and fertilisation

Blood vessels and heart

Exchange in capillaries

Electron transport

Nerve impulses/action potential

Synapses

Muscle contraction

Alveolar gas exchange

Translocation

Photosynthesis

Kidneys

12

Cycles in Biology

Large and small biological molecules, condensation and
hydrolysis

Enzymes

Cell cycle – Mitosis and meiosis

PCR

Mammalian blood circulation

Calvin cycle

Krebs cycle

ATP and ADP

Negative feedback

Nitrogen cycle

Carbon cycle

Menstrual cycle

Muscle contraction

Nerve impulses

Predator prey

Electron transport chain

13

Ions and organisms

Osmosis and turgor

Haemoglobin dissociation, pH and carbon dioxide

Uptake/movement of water/mineral ions by/in plants

Ions in biological molecules

Hydrogen, photosynthesis and respiration

Anaerobic respiration and lactate

Nerve impulses and synaptic transmission

Regulation of blood water potential/kidney function

Muscle contraction

Nitrogen cycle

Eutrophication

Movement across membranes

Cystic fibrosis

14

DNA and the transfer of information

Genes/how information is carried on DNA

Replication of DNA

Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis

Transcription and translation

Mutation

Genetic engineering

Gene therapy

Genetically modified organisms

Variation (in populations)

Evolution

Inheritance

15

The part played by the movement of substances across cell membranes in the functioning of different organs and organ systems

Plasma membranes and movement across

Gaseous exchange system/lungs

Digestive system/small intestine

Blood vascular system

Transpiration/root/stem

Mass flow/leaf/stem

Nervous system/eye

Excretory system/kidney

Muscle systems

Liver, blood glucose

Root mineral ions

Lungs cystic fibrosis

16

The part played by enzymes in the functioning of different cells, tissues and organs

Action of enzymes

Enzyme properties

Extracellular digestion

Nutrient cycles

Digestion in humans

Replication of DNA

Protein and enzyme synthesis

Metabolic pathways

Mutations

Coenzymes and enzyme action

Homeostasis

Neurone/synapse

Muscle contraction

Pesticide toxicity

17

Movements inside cells

Plasma membranes and movement across

Protein synthesis

Movement through ER and Golgi

Cell division and chromosome movement

Water movement in plants/xylem

Translocation

Neurones and synaptic vesicles

Actin and myosin

DNA replication and mutation

Electron transport chains

Molecular/atomic/ionic movement

18

Transfers through ecosystems

Photosynthesis – energy transfer

Respiration – energy transfer

Carbon cycle

Nitrogen cycle

Food chains

Ecological pyramids

Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation

Eutrophication

Digestion and absorption

Transfer of genetic material

Water cycle