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Flashcards in Biology Final Deck (59)
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1

Atom

The basic unit of matter

2

Proton

Positively charged particles

3

Neutron

Particle with no charge, neutral

4

Electron

Negatively charged particle with only 1/1840 the mass of a proton

5

Compound

A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

6

Molecule

Results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds, smallest unit of most compounds

7

Amino Acids

Compounds with the amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other, covalent bonds link amino acids together to form a polypeptide, and a protein is formed from one or more polypeptides

8

Substrate

It is the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reaction

9

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, work by lowering a reaction’s activation energy

10

Activation Energy

The energy needed to get a reaction started

11

Product

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction

12

Reactant

The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

13

Prokaryote

Cells that do not enclose DNA in the nuclei, smaller and simpler, do not have organelles, single celled, bacteria

14

Eukaryote

Cells that enclose DNA in the nuclei, larger and more complex, contain organelles, multicellular or single cellular, plants, animals, fungi, protists

15

Lipid Bilayer

Makes up the cell membrane and gives it a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings, double layered sheet, made up of lipids with a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail

16

Diffusion

The process by which particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration

17

Osmosis

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane, molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, only water molecules can move in osmosis, not solute materials

18

Facilitated Diffusion

The process in which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through special protein channels

19

Active Transport

The movement of materials against a concentration difference that requires energy

20

ATP

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate, and is used by the cell to store and release energy

21

Fermentation

The process in which oxygen is not present continues to release energy from food molecules by producing ATP

22

Glycolysis

The first set of reactions in cellular respiration and breaks down sugar and results in 2 ATP molecules; takes place in the cytoplasm

23

Krebs Cycle

The second set of reactions in cellular respiration and results in 2 ATP molecules; takes place in the mitochondria

24

Electron Transport Chain

The last set of reactions in cellular respiration and results in 32 ATP molecules

25

Pigment

A light-absorbing molecule that plants use to gather the sun’s energy

26

Chromosome

Genetic information that is bundled up into packages

27

Chromatid

The DNA strand in the duplicated chromosome

28

Interphase

Consists of three phases G1, S, and G2. Interphase it the phase where the cells prepare to divide

29

Cytokinesis

The final stage that completes the process of cell division by splitting one cell into two

30

Gamete

Sex cells