Biology S4 Revision 2017 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology S4 Revision 2017 Deck (30):
1

What is the word equation for photosynthesis?

The word equation for photosynthesis is:

Carbon dioxide + water → light → Glucose + Oxygen.

2

What is the symbol equation for photosynthesis?

Here's the symbol equation too:

6CO₂ + 6H₂O → Light → C₆H120₆+ 6O₂.

3

What do plants use glucose for?

Plants use glucose in five main ways...

1). For Respiration- This transfers energy from glucose which enables the plants to convert the rest of the glucose into other useful substances.

2). Making cellulose- Glucose is converted into cellulose for making strong plant cell walls.

3). Making amino acids- Glucose is combined with nitrate ions ( absorbed from the soil) to make amino acids, which are then made into proteins.

4). Stored as oils or fats- Glucose is turned into lipids (fats and oils) for storing in seeds.

5). Stored as starch- Glucose is turned into starch and stored in roots, stems and leaves, ready for use when photosynthesis isn't happening, like in the winter. Starch is insoluble which makes it much better for storing than glucose- a cell with lots of glucose in would draw in loads of water and swell up.

4

What does genome mean in terms of DNA?

Genome is just the fancy term for the entire set of genetic material in an organism.

5

What does Gene mean?

Gene is a small section of DNA found on a
chromosome.

6

What's the word equation for Aerobic respiration?

The word equation for Aerobic respiration is:

Glucose + oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water.

7

What's the symbol equation for Aerobic respiration?

Here's the symbol equation for Aerobic respiration:

C₆H12 0₆ + 60₂ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂0

8

What's the word equation for Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells?

Here's the word equation for Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells:

Glucose → Lactic Acid.

9

What's the word equation for Anaerobic respiration in plants and yeast cells?

Here's the word equation for Anaerobic respiration in plants and yeast cells:

Glucose→ ethanol + carbon dioxide.

10

What is yeast used for?

Yeast is used to make bread and alcoholic drinks e.g. Beer and Wine.

11

Define metabolism?

Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions in an organism.

12

Give me example's of metabolism.

Example's of metabolism are enzymes.

13

What is DNA made up of in terms of the DNA structure?

DNA is made up of Nucleotides.

14

What does each nucleotide consist of?

Each nucleotide consists of one sugar molecule, one phosphate molecule and one 'base'.

15

What does the sugar and phosphate molecules in the nucleotides form?

The sugar and phosphate molecules in the nucleotides form a 'backbone' to the DNA strands. The sugar and phosphate molecules alternate. One of of four different bases- A, T, C or G- joins to each sugar.

16

What does each base link to?

Each base links to a base on the opposite strand in the helix.

17

What does A always pair up with and what does C always pair up with?

A always pairs up with T and C always pairs up with G.
This is called complementary base pairing.

18

What are DNA strands?

DNA strands are polymers which are made up of lots of repeating units called nucleotides.

19

Define Anti- Toxin

Anti- Toxins are a chemical produced by white blood cells to neutralise toxins.

20

Explain Immune.

Immune means you are resistant to a particular pathogen or toxin.

21

Define Thalidomide.

Thalidomide is a drug used treat leprosy (blood and bone cancer), previously used to treat morning sickness but withdrawn due to birth defects.

22

Define Toxicity.

Toxicity means that it's damage to cells and organs.

23

Explain Dosage.

Dosage is the amount of medication.

24

Define Efficacy

Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired result (does it work)

25

Explain Blind Trial

A blind trial is where the patient doesn't know if they are taking the new drug or the alternative drug. The doctor knows.

26

Define Double blind trial.

A double blind trial is where neither the doctor or the patient knows which drug is being prescribed.

27

Explain Open Label

Open Label is where both the patient & the doctor know the medication being taken.

28

Define Placebo.

A placebo is a fake drug, to rule out psychosomatic effects (some people feel better & recover by taking any medication).

29

Explain Selective Breeding

Selective breeding (artificial selection) is the process by which humans breed plants and animals for particular genetic characterises.

30

Define biodiversity.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species present in an area.