Flashcards in Biology - Topic 3 - Genetics Deck (50)
Which structures are found inside the nucleus?
Which substance forms a long strand in each chromosome?
How do body cells make copies of themselves?
cell division, mitosis
How many chromosomes are there in a human body cell nucleus?
What happens in fertilisation?
two gametes fuse
What is the name of the cell formed in fertilisation?
zygote, fertilised egg cell
Which term means producing more of the same kind of organism?
What is the name of the human male gamete?
The DNA strand in a chromosome contains sections that carry instructions for characteristics. What are these sections called?
What would happen to the number of chromosomes in a zygote if two body cells were used in fertilisation?
it would have twice the number it should
How many chromosomes does a human gametecontain?
Where are genes found?
(in sections of DNA) on chromosomes
What does a gene carry the instructions for?
making a protein
A protein is made by linking together smaller molecules. What are these smaller molecules called?
What is any molecule made of repeating units called?
A human cell contains 46 strands of DNA. Is it diploid or haploid?
Are the cells produced by meiosis haploid or diploid?
Are the cells produced by mitosis haploid or diploid?
What shape is DNA?
What is a chromosome made out of?
DNA and proteins (to package the DNA)
What are the letters of the bases that form the DNA code?
A, C, T and G
How do the bases pair up in DNA?
A with T, C with G
Apart from bases, what other parts are needed in a DNA molecule?
phosphate group, sugar
What is one phosphate group, one sugar and one base called?
How is the active site of an enzyme formed?
by folding of protein/polypeptide/amino acid chains
A change in the bases of a gene creates a genetic variant. What is this sort of change called?
What is an organism’s phenotype?
its observable characteristics
What are different versions of the same genecalled?
What sort of variation do alleles cause in organisms?
When we consider one gene, what word is used to say that both alleles are the same?
If a dominant allele has the letter A, how would you show that an organism is heterozygous?
What word describes the alleles of a gene found in an organism?
What word describes an allele that only has an effect if an organism has two copies?
A genotype is written QQ. What does this tell you?
It is homozygous for the dominant allele.
What is monohybrid inheritance?
inheritance of alleles of one gene
How can we show the possible inheritance of alleles by offspring from their parents?
genetic diagram, Punnett square
Which type of diagram is used to show the inheritance of a characteristic through different generations in a family?
If the genotype for one gene of a rabbit is Bb, where B is the allele for brown coat and b the allele for black coat, what is the rabbit’s phenotype?
What are the possible allele combinations of offspring from heterozygous parents who are both Aa for a gene?
AA, Aa and aa
A human egg cell that contains an X sex chromosome is fertilised by a sperm cell containing a Y sex chromosome. What will be the sex of the baby that develops?
What is the theoretical probability of a couple having a baby boy?
50% or 0.5
Name the four bases in DNA.
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
Why can DNA be matched to the person it came from?
Everybody has a slightly different orders of bases in their DNA.
Is human eye colour coded for by one gene or many genes?
One gene codes for the cell membrane protein CFTR. There are many alleles for the CFTR gene. How many alleles do you have for the CFTR gene in one of your body cells?
A mutation of the CFTR gene can lead to the disorder cystic fibrosis. What is a mutation?
a change in the order of bases that form the gene
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder. What does that mean?
It is passed from parent to offspring in the genes in a gamete.
What research, finished in 2003, was the first effort to map a complete human genome?
Human Genome Project
How could a map of a person’s genome help identify diseases they might develop?
Some alleles show an increased risk for the person of developing a genetic disorder.