Biology - Topic 2 - Cells and Control Flashcards Preview

GCSE Science Edexcel Combined > Biology - Topic 2 - Cells and Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology - Topic 2 - Cells and Control Deck (35):
1

What type of cell division forms two identical daughter cells?

Mitosis

2

In which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated?

Interphase

3

In which stage of the cell cycle, at the end of mitosis, does the one cell divide into two?

Cytokinesis

4

What term describes a cell that has two sets of chromosomes?

Diploid

5

Define the term ‘growth’.

An increase in cell number and size

6

How are roots adapted to absorbing water and mineral salts from the ground?

Root hair cells have long extensions into the soil that increase the surface area for absorption.

7

Where are plant meristems found?

Tips of plant shoots and roots (also just inside bark of trees)

8

What happens in a plant meristem?

Cells divide rapidly by mitosis as the plant grows.

9

What type of cell is found in meristems?

unspecialised/stem cells

10

What happens during cell differentiation?

Cells develop special features that help them carry out a particular function.

11

Why is cell differentiation important to plants and animals?

Specialised cells are more effective at carrying out different functions in the body.

12

A root hair cell is a specialised cell. What is its function?

To absorb water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil

13

How is a root hair cell specialised to carry out its function?

It has a long extension into the soil that increases the surface area for absorption.

14

What is the function of a xylem vessel?

To carry water and mineral salts through the plant

15

Explain how one specialisation of a xylem vessel helps it carry out its function.

any one from: thickened wall to prevent collapse of tube/withstand pressure of water; no cell cytoplasm and lost cell walls to form long tubes through which water flows up the plant; small holes in thick cell wall so water can pass into and out of the vessel from surrounding cells

16

Name one feature, other than mass, that could be measured to show growth in a plant.

any suitable measure that will show change over time, such as: height, tree girth, leaf area, number of leaves

17

What type of cell has the ability to differentiate into specialised cells?

Stem cells

18

In what organ system would you find nervecells?

The nervous system

19

Are nerve cells diploid or haploid?

Diploid

20

What part of a nerve cell containschromosomes?

Nucleus

21

Nerve cells require a lot of energy. What cell structure would you expect them to have a lot of?

Mitochondria

22

What is a nerve cell specialised to do?

Carry electrical signals/impulses

23

List your senses.

Touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell, balance,temperature and plenty of others

24

State the name of one organ in the nervous system.

Brain, spinal cord or nerves or a named sense organ eg. eyes or skin

25

What type of cells is the brain mainly made up of?

Neurones, nerve cells

26

What name is given to an electrical signaltransmitted by a neurone?

Impulse

27

What type of cells detect stimuli?

Receptor cells

28

In which sense organ would you find receptor cells that detect light waves?

Eye

29

List, in order, the organs that an impulse goes through from the hand to the brain.

nerve(s), spinal cord

30

What are the two long ‘arms’ of a sensoryneurone called?

Dendron and axon

31

List, in order, the parts of a sensory neurone that an impulse goes through.

dendrite, dendron, axon, axon terminal

32

Why are sensory neurones so long?

to carry impulses quickly over long distances

33

What is the name of the fatty sheath thatsurrounds dendrons and axons?

Myelin sheath

34

What does the myelin sheath do?

speeds up transmission of impulses, insulates neurones from each other

35

An effector is part of the body that carried out a response due to a stimulus. Suggest the name of one effector.

muscle or gland