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Flashcards in Biology Vocab Words Deck (54):
1

Describes chemical reactions that require energy input

Endergonic

2

Inorganic ion, such as iron, and magnesium, required for optimal regulation of enzyme activity

Cofactors

3

Molecule on which the enzyme acts

Substrate

4

Describes chemical reactions that release free energy

Exergonic

5

Phospholipid bilayer with embedded or attached proteins, and seperates the internal content of the cell from its surrounding environment

Plasma Membrane

6

Process that does not use oxygen

Anaerobic Respiration

7

O2 and glucose are broken down to CO2 and H20

Cellular Respiration

8

Alters an enzymes function by changing its shape; does not bind to active site but binds elsewhere on the enzyme

Noncompetitive Inhibitor

9

Gylcerol molecule and 2 fatty acid tails and a phosphate group

Phospholipid

10

-Nucleus
-Membrane bound organelles
-larger
ex) plants, animals, protists, fungi

Eukaryotic

11

Each of the partial partitions in a mictochondrion formed by infolding of the inner membrane (the folds)

Cristae

12

Electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen in a series of redox reactions

Election transport chain

13

Are proteins which function as biological catalysts. they increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction itself

Enzymes

14

- When NAD+ accepts electrons (reduced)
- Transfers electrons from one step to another

NADH+

15

Process of break down glucose into two three-carbon molecules with the production of ATP and NADH

Glycolysis

16

Process in which organisms convert energy in the presence of oxygen

Aerobic Respiration

17

Type of inhibition in which the inhibitor competes with the substrate molecule by binding to the active site of the enzyme

Competitive Inhibitor

18

Small organic molecule, such as a vitamin or its derivative, which is required to enhance the activity of an enzyme

Coenzyme

19

Specific region of the enzyme to which the substrate binds

Active site

20

Adenosine Triphosphate, the cells energy currency

ATP

21

Type of energy associated with objects or particles in motion

Kinetic Energy

22

Type of energy that has potential to do work; stored energy

Potential Energy

23

Energy necessary for reactions to occur

Activation Energy

24

Process of passing bulk material out of a cell

Exocytosis

25

Method of transporting material that requires energy

Active Transport

26

Transport of water through a semiperable membrane according to the concentration gradient of water across the membrane that results from the presence of solute that cannot pass through the membrane

Osmosis

27

Molecule with the ability to bond with water, ''water-loving"

Hydrophilic

28

Molecule that does not have the ability to bond with water, "water-hating"

Hydrophobic

29

-Tight Junctions
-Anchoring Junctions
-Gap Junctions

Cell Junctions

30

Material secreted from animal cells that provides mechanical protection and anchoring for the cells in the tissue.

Extracellular Matrix

31

Network of protein fibers that collectively maintain the shape of the cell, secure some organelles in specific positions, allow cytoplasm and vesticles to move within the cell, and enable unicellular organisms to move independently

Cytoskeleton

32

Region of the endoplasmic reticulum that has few or no ribosomes on it cyoplasmic surface and sythesizes carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxifies certain chemicals, and stores calcium ions

Smooth ER

33

Region of the endoplasmic reticulum that is studded with ribosomes and engages in protein modification and phospholipid synthesis

Rough ER

34

Eukaryotic organelle made up of a series of stacked membranes that sorts, tags, and packages lipids and proteins for distribution

Gogli Apparatus

35

Membrane bound sac, somewhat larger that a vesicle, which functions in cellular storage and transport

Vacuoles

36

Cell organelle that houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of ribosomes and proteins

Nucleus

37

Cellular organelles reponsible for carrying out cellular respiration resulting in the production of ATP, the cells main energy carrying molecule

Mitochondria

38

Organelle in an animal cell that functions as the cells digestive component; it breaks down proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acid, and even worn-out organelles

Lysosomes

39

Plant cell organelle that carries out photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

40

Rigid cell covering made of cellulose that protects the cell, provides structural support and gives shape to the cell

Cell Wall

41

-No Nucleus
--No Membrane bound organelles
-Smaller
EX) Bacteria, Archaea

Prokaryotic

42

Type of active transport that moves substances, including fluids and particles into a cell

Endocytosis

43

Polar or charged substances can move across a membrane with the help of transport proteins

Facilitated Diffusion

44

The movement of electrons from one molecule to another during a chemical reaction

Oxidation-reduction Reaction (redox reaction)

45

Process of regenerating NAD+ with either an inorganic or organic compound serving as the final electron acceptor, occurs in the absence of oxygen

Fermentation

46

Passive process of transport of low molecular weight material according to its concentrations gradient

Diffusion

47

Compartment or sac within a cell

Organelle

48

Group of organelles and membranes in eukaryotic cells that work together modifying, packaging, and transporting lipids and proteins

Endomembrane system

49

Cellular structure that carries out protein synthesis

Ribosome

50

Production of ATP using the process of chemiosmosis and oxygen

Oxidative phosphorylation

51

Characteristic of a membrane from the cell wall and constriction of the cell membrane when a plant cell is in a hypertonic solution

Selective Permeability

52

Process in which there is a production of ATP in cellular metabolism by the involvement of proton gradient across the membrane

Chemiosmosis

53

Series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reaction of central importance in all living cells

Citric Acid Cycle

54

An important enzyme in the process of oxidizing glucose is a coenzyme

NAD+