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Flashcards in Biomolecules Deck (115):
1

Molecules that exist in all living things

Organic Molecules

2

Four categories of Org. Molec.

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

3

Another name for biomolecules

Biogenic substances

4

4 characteristics of biomolecules

1. C-based
2. Made of monomers (to make polymers)
3. Made of only one type of monomer
4. Form determines function

5

Building blocks of carbohydrates

Sugars

6

Building blocks of lipids

Glycerol and Fatty acids

7

Building blocks of proteins

Amino acids

8

Building blocks of nucleic acids

Nucleotides

9

Bond/s between carbohydrates

Glycosidic

10

Bond/s between lipids

Ester

11

Bond/s between proteins

Peptide

12

Bond/s between Nucleic Acids

1. Phosphodiester - phosphate and pentose sugars
2. Hydrogen - nitrogenous bases

13

Repeating units in biomolecules

Monomers

14

Number of monomers in dimer

2

15

# monomers in oligomer

3-10

16

Determines behavior and reactivity of biomolecules

Shape

17

Most common org. Molec.

Carbohydrates

18

Ratio of C:H:O in Carbohydrates

1:2:1

19

Carbohydrate formula

(CH2O) n

20

Basis of Carbohydrate classifications

Chain length

21

Simple sugars

Monosaccharides

22

Suffix of monosaccharides

-ose

23

What do monosaccharides consist of

Carbon rings

24

Functional group in monosaccharides

Carboxyl Group
(Aldehyde @end & Ketone @ middle)

25

Basis of naming of monosaccharides

# of Carbons in backbone

26

Kinds of Disaccharides

Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose

(LMS)

27

Lactose =

Glucose + Galactose

28

Sucrose =

Glucose + Fructose

29

Maltose =

Glucose + Glucose

30

Functions of Polysaccharides

1. Short-term energy storage
2. Structural Components

31

Polysaccharide Short term energy storage (enumerate)

Starch
Glycogen

32

Starch (Plant or Animal)

Plant

33

Starch contains....

Amylose and amylopectin

34

Amylose (branched/unbranched)

Unbranched

35

Amylopectin (branched/unbranched)

Branched

36

Glycogen (Plants or Animals)

Animals

37

Glycogen is abundant in what cells

Liver & muscle

38

Is glycogen branched or unbranched

Branched

39

If blood sugar levels are low, what does glycogen do?

Break down to glucose

40

Cellulose (plant/animal)

Plant

41

Chitin (plant/animal)

Animal

42

Most abundant bipolymer

Cellulose

43

Cellulose is found in...

Cell walls and wood

44

Cellulose is indigestible for humans because we lack the enzyme...

Cellulase

45

Chitin is found in...

Anthropod skeletons
Fungal cell walls

46

Repeating units of chitin

N-acetyl- beta- d-glucosamine

47

Benefits of carbohydrates

1. Short term energy storage
2. Soluble and insoluble elements (ex. Fiber)

48

1g carbohydrate = n kcal

n= 4.3kcal

49

Fiber functions

1. Removes cholesterol
2. Speeds up bowel movement

50

Lipid polarity

Non-polar

51

Lipids have (higher/lower) numbers of C, H, O

Lower

52

Functions of Lipids

1. Long-term energy storage
2. Insulation
3. Protection and Waterproofing
4. Structural Components

53

1. Long-term energy storage

Fats & oils

54

2. Insulation

Blubber

55

3. Protection and Waterproofing

Waxes
Cell Membrane
Oils

56

4. Structural Components

Part of Cell membrane

57

Fats and oils are known as ...

Triglycerides

58

Fats are from..

Animals

59

Fats are ____ @ room temp

Solid

60

Oils come from...

Plants

61

Oils are ____ @ room temp

Liquid

62

Triglyceride =

Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains

63

Kinds of fatty acid chains

Saturated and unsaturated

64

Saturated have ____ chains

Straight

65

Unsaturated have ____ chains

Crooked

66

What are the fatty acid tails saturated/unsaturated with?

Hydrogen

67

Which fatty acid has double bonds in C

Unsaturated

68

Phospholipid =

Phosphate head + glycerol + 2 fatty acid chains

69

Replaces 1 fatty acid chain in phospholipid

Phosphate head

70

Another name for steroidz

Sterols

71

Steroids are ____carbons

Hydrocarbons

72

Steroids:
C arranged in (#) linked rings

4

73

Essential components of cell membrane

Cholesterol
Phospholipids

74

Cholesterol aids in the production of ...

Sex hormones

75

Sex hormones produced by cholesterol

Estrogen
Testosterone

76

Waxes =

Long chain fatty acids + long chain alcohols

77

Solid @ room temp & high Melting Point (MP)

Waxes

78

Function of waxes

Protection
Prevention of Water loss

79

Benefits of Lipids

1. Essential Fatty Acids
2. Fat-Soluble vitamins
3. Long-term energy storage

80

Essential fatty acids ...

Cannot be synthesized by body

81

Examples of essential fatty acids

Omega-3
Omega-6

82

Reduce risk of heart attacks
Reduce levels of triglyceride in blood
Lower BP
Prevent thrombosis
Prevent blood clotting

Benefits of Omega-3 & 6

83

Elements involved in Proteins

C H O N S

84

Kinds of Proteins

Functional & Structural

85

Monomers of proteins

Amino acids

86

Amino acid =

Amino group - C H - R group -Carboxyl Group

87

Determines nature of amino acid

R group

88

# types of amino acids

20

89

#types essential amino acids

10

90

Amino acids:
What determines shape, size & function?

Sequence of amino acids
# of amino acids

91

Polypeptide =

Amino acid---Amino acid----Amino acid

---- : peptide bond

92

As peptide bond forms, ____ is released

H2O / water

93

Seq. of Amino acids w/i a polypeptide chain

Primary structure

94

Involved in Secondary protein structure

Alpha-pleated and Beta-helix sheets

95

Causes folding of Amino acid into alpha and beta sheets

H-bonds on backbone

96

Causes 3D folding in tertiary structure

R-group interactions

97

Components of Quaternary structure

Multiple polypeptide chains

98

Protein used for: support

Collagen & keratin

99

Protein used for: transport

Hemoglobin (in blood)
Transport proteins

100

Protein used for: nutrition

Egg yolk

101

Protein used for: hormones

Insulin

102

Protein used for: defense

Antibodies

103

Protein used for: movement

Contractile proteins

104

Nucleic acid =

Pentose sugar + nitrogenous base + phosphate group

105

DNA nitrogenous bases

Cytosine
Guanine
Adenine
Thymine

(CGAT)

106

RNA Nitrogenous bases

Cytosine
Guanine
Adenine
Uracil

(CGAU)

SIKAT SI GAWWWW (CGAT CGAU)

107

Test for monosaccharides

Benedict's Reagent

108

Test for starch

Iodine

109

Test for fats & oils

Denatured alcohol
Sudan red

110

Test for proteins

Biuret Reagent

111

Expected Result for benedict's reagent

Blue >> Green >> Red Orange >> Brick Red

112

Expected Result for iodine

Bluish black

113

Expected Result for denatured alcohol

Oil on top of "water"
Layer

114

Expected Result for Sudan Red

Red oil droplets

115

Expected Result for Biuret Reagent

Purple