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MCM Exam 1 > Biomolecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biomolecules Deck (26):
1

Dietary Carbohydrates (4)

Starch, Sucrose, Dietary Fiber, Lactose.

2

Starch

Polysaccharide of glucose.

3

Sucrose

Disaccharide of glucose and fructose (a-1, b-2 bond).

4

Lactose

Disaccharide of glucose and galactose (b 1 to 4 bond)

5

Lactose Intolerance

Pt. does not have lactase to break lactose into glu and gal, leading to bacterial fermentation.

6

Blood Glucose Levels

Normal: 70-100 mg/dL (fasting), <140 mg/dL (fed)
Hypoglycemic: <60 mg/dL
DM: >126 mg/dL (fasting), >199 mg/dL (fed)
<40 mg/dL: coma, brain damage, death

7

Common Disaccharides

Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose

8

Oligosaccharides

Glycolipids and glycoproteins.

9

Polysaccharides

Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose.

10

Modified Monosaccharides (5)

Deoxyaldose, Acetylated Amino Sugars, Acidic Sugars, Sugar Esters, Sugar Alcohols.

11

Deoxyaldose

Component of DNA.

12

Acetylated Amino Sugars

Component of glycoproteins and glycolipids.

13

Acidic Sugars

Present in CM and ECM.

14

Sugar Esters

Constitute the gangiosides in oligodendrocytes of the NS.

15

Sugar Alcohols

Food additives (ex: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol).

16

More on Sugar Alcohols (3)

Fewer cals per gram, not as readily absorbed, do not contribute to tooth decay.

17

Maltose

Glucose and glucose (a 1-4 bond)

18

Amylose

Unbranched with a 1-4 linkages.

19

Amylopectin

Branched (12-20 glu) with a 1-4 linkages and a 1-6 linkages.

20

Cellulose

Unbranched with b 1-4 linkages of b-glucose.

21

Glycogen

Highly branched (6-10 glu) a 1-4 and a 1-6 linkages.

22

Isoprenoids

Synthesized from acetyl CoA.
Can be condensed to make cholesterol, vitamins and coenzyme Q.

23

Cholesterol

Precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D.

24

Three Functions of Proteins

Energy, Structure, Activity (enzymes, signaling, transport).

25

Mechanism of Gallstones

From nonideal bile, which includes too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. This causes gallstones to form and can lead to malabsorption and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies if continued.

26

Treatment of Gallstones

Oral chenodeoxycholic acid.