Flashcards in Biomolecules Deck (26):
Dietary Carbohydrates (4)
Starch, Sucrose, Dietary Fiber, Lactose.
Polysaccharide of glucose.
Disaccharide of glucose and fructose (a-1, b-2 bond).
Disaccharide of glucose and galactose (b 1 to 4 bond)
Pt. does not have lactase to break lactose into glu and gal, leading to bacterial fermentation.
Blood Glucose Levels
Normal: 70-100 mg/dL (fasting), <140 mg/dL (fed)
Hypoglycemic: <60 mg/dL
DM: >126 mg/dL (fasting), >199 mg/dL (fed)
<40 mg/dL: coma, brain damage, death
Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose
Glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Glycogen, Starch, Cellulose.
Modified Monosaccharides (5)
Deoxyaldose, Acetylated Amino Sugars, Acidic Sugars, Sugar Esters, Sugar Alcohols.
Component of DNA.
Acetylated Amino Sugars
Component of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Present in CM and ECM.
Constitute the gangiosides in oligodendrocytes of the NS.
Food additives (ex: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol).
More on Sugar Alcohols (3)
Fewer cals per gram, not as readily absorbed, do not contribute to tooth decay.
Glucose and glucose (a 1-4 bond)
Unbranched with a 1-4 linkages.
Branched (12-20 glu) with a 1-4 linkages and a 1-6 linkages.
Unbranched with b 1-4 linkages of b-glucose.
Highly branched (6-10 glu) a 1-4 and a 1-6 linkages.
Synthesized from acetyl CoA.
Can be condensed to make cholesterol, vitamins and coenzyme Q.
Precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D.
Three Functions of Proteins
Energy, Structure, Activity (enzymes, signaling, transport).
Mechanism of Gallstones
From nonideal bile, which includes too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. This causes gallstones to form and can lead to malabsorption and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies if continued.